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TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



FOR THE YEAR 1917 



PART I 




PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

BOSTON 

NINETEEN HUNDRED AND SEVENTEEN 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




»at jrasdis Iptfrfalfral Sbtietj 



FOR THE YEAR 1917 



PART I 




BOSTON 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY 

NINETEEN HUNDKED AND SEVENTEEN 



assaxljuscits Ijortiailtural Sotwtg. 






OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES 
FOR 1917. 



President. 
RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, of Boston. 

Vice-Presidents . 

WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Boston. 
NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, of Milton. 

Treasurer. 
WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Boston. 

Secretary. 
WILLIAM P. RICH, of Chelsea.* 

Trustees. 

THOMAS ALLEN, of Boston. 
F. LOTHROP AMES, of North Easton. 
GEORGE E. BARNARD, of Ipswich. 
ERNEST B. DANE, of Brookline. 
WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT, of Boston. 
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, of Boston. 
JOHN K. M. L. FARQUHAR, of Boston. 
ANDREW W. PRESTON, of Boston. 
THOMAS ROLAND, of Nahant. 
CHARLES S. SARGENT, of Brookline. 
EDWIN S. WEBSTER, of Boston. 
STEPHEN M. WELD, of Wareham. 

Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture. 
EDWARD B. WILDER, Dorchester. 

Nominating Committee. 

WILLIAM DOWNS, Chestnut Hill. JOHN K. M. L. FARQUHAR, Boston. 

NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, Milton. MARCELLUS A. PATTEN, Tewksbury. 

WILLIAM SIM, Cliftondale. 



* Communications to the Secretary, on the business of the Society, should be 
addressed to him at Horticultural Hall, Boston. 



COMMITTEES FOR 1917. 



Finance Committee. 



WALTER HUXXEWELL, Chairman. 
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, STEPHEN M. WELD. 

Membership Committee. 

THOMAS ALLEN, GEORGE E. BARNARD, 

RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL. 

Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions. 

JAMES WHEELER, Chairman. 
JOHN K. M. L. FARQUHAR, DUNCAN FINLAYSON, 

T. D. HATFIELD, THOMAS ROLAND. 

Committee on Plants and Flowers. 

WILLIAM ANDERSON, Chairman. 

ARTHUR H. FEWKES, ARTHUR E. GRIFFIN, 

S. J. GODDARD, DONALD McKENZIE. 

Committee on Fruits. 

EDWARD B. WILDER, Chairman. 
WILLIAM N. CRAIG, ISAAC H. LOCKE. 

JAMES METHVEN. 

Committee on Vegetables. 

JOHN L. SMITH, Chairman. 
EDWARD PARKER, WILLIAM C. RUST. 

Committee on Gardens. 

RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, Chairman. 
JOHN S. AMES, DAVID R. CRAIG, 

WILLIAM NICHOLSON, CHARLES SANDER, 

CHARLES H. TEXXEY. 

Committee on Library. 

CHARLES S. SARGENT, Chairman. 
ERNEST B. DANE, NATHANIEL T. KIDDER. 

Committee on Lectures and Publications. 

FRED A. WILSON, Chairman. 
LEONARD BARRON, NATHANIEL T. KIDDER. 

Committee on Children's Gardens. 

HENRY S. ADAMS, Chairman. 

DR. HARRIS KENNEDY, MRS. W. RODMAN PEABODY, 

MISS MARGARET A. RAND, JAMES WHEELER. 



Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 
1917. 



The Transactions of the Society are issued annually in two parts 
under the direction of the Committee on Lectures and Publications. 

Communications relating to the objects of the Society, its publi- 
cations, exhibitions, and membership, may be addressed to William 
P. Rich, Secretary, Horticultural Hall, No. 300 Massachusetts 
Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Fred A. Wilson, Chairman ) Committee on 
Leonard Barron V Lectures and 

Nathaniel T. Kidder J Publications. 



CONTENTS. 

The Inaugural Meeting 7 

Horticultural Papers 

Seed Sowing Suggestions. By William N. Craig . . 15 

The Formation and Characteristics of Massachusetts 
Peat Lands and Some of their Uses. By Dr. 
Alfred P. Dachnowski ...... 29 

Herbaceous Perennials we should grow. By Prof. Arno 

H. Nehrling 47 

Recent Troubles with our Forest Trees. By Frank W. 

Rane 57 

Honey-bees in relation to Horticulture. By Dr. Burton 

N. Gates 71 

Strawberry Culture. By 0. M. Taylor ... 89 

Cranberry Culture. By Marcus L. Urann . . . 103 



THE INAUGURAL MEETING, JANUARY 13, 1917. 



/ 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




1917, PART I. 



INAUGURAL MEETING. 

The Inaugural Meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society for the year 1917 was held at Horticultural Hall, Boston, 
on Saturday, January 13, at twelve o'clock, with President Salton- 
stall in the Chair. 

The call for the meeting was read by the Secretary and the 
record of the previous meeting was read and approved. The 
President then proceeded to deliver his Inaugural Address. 

Inaugural Address of President Saltonstall. 
Ladies and Gentlemen, 

Members of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society: 

I have derived very great pleasure from my work for the Society 
during the past year. The year has been one of progress although 
nothing of special importance has occurred. There are, however, 
some matters worthy of note: — 

There have been ten exhibitions during the year, and something 
over $8,000 awarded in prizes. The large May Show was well 
arranged and created much favorable comment. Almost $1600.00 
was contributed by members for special prizes at this show which 
indicates an active desire on the part of our members to cooperate. 

The Fall Show is also worthy of special mention; favorable 
comment should be made of the fruits and vegetables which cer- 
tainly rivalled in interest the exhibition of plants and flowers. 

The semi-monthly exhibitions during the year have not been a 

7 



8 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

success, but it is believed advisable to have monthly exhibitions 
during the flowering seasons for their educational features. 

Our receipts from exhibitions during the year increased from 
$2,097.22 to $3,909.14. This opens up good hopes for the coming 
year. The expenditures of the Society for the four years prior to 
1916 showed excess expenditures of about $7,700 which is a very 
serious matter. This year our receipts exceed expenditures by 
about $1,060 and this small surplus should be applied against losses 
of previous years or held as a reserve against insurance, large 
premiums falling due this year. 

In this connection it is pleasing to note that during the year the 
Society received a bequest under the will of Miss Helen Collamore, 
daughter of John Collamore, a former well-known resident of 
Boston, of five thousand dollars ($5,000) which by vote of the 
Trustees has been added to the permanent fund of the Society. 

Our Library is one of the finest in the country, containing over 
twenty thousand (20,000) volumes, all well catalogued. Its 
usefulness will be greatly extended by printing the catalogue, the 
estimated expense of which is approximately four thousand dollars 
($4,000) of which amount fifteen hundred dollars ($1,500) has al- 
ready been subscribed by members. This subscription by members 
is another instance of their warm support. 

The lectures of the year maintained a high standard for interest 
and usefulness as is shown by the following program: 

Ernest H. Wilson Flowers and Gardens of Japan. 
Dr. George T. Moore The Missouri Botanical Garden. 
Prof. S. C. Damon Alfalfa Culture in New England. 
W. T. Macoun The Development of Fruits for Special 

Conditions. 
George C. Husmann Some History of the Grape in the United 

States. 
Leonard Barron Garden Writings in America. 

T. D. Hatfield Methods used in the Propagation of 

Plants. 
Frederick V. Coville Taming the Wild Blueberry. 
Frank N. Meyer Economic Botanical Explorations in China. 

J. J. Taubenhaus Sweet Pea Diseases and their Control. 



INAUGURAL MEETING 9 

The lectures are certainly to be continued for another year. 

The award of the George Robert White Medal of Honor: A 
continuing vote of thanks from the members of the Society is 
due to Mr. White for his gift to the Society of seven thousand five 
hundred dollars ($7,500) which enables the annual award of the 
substantial gold medal to the one who has done most for advance- 
ment of the interest in horticulture in recent years. This year 
the medal was awarded to William Robinson of Sussex, England, 
who has stimulated so much interest by his writings on horticul- 
tural subjects. 

Now let us turn our thoughts to the coming year. It should be 
the aim of the Society, first, to stimulate a broader interest in 
horticulture in all its branches, flowers, fruits, and vegetables. One 
of the means for best accomplishing this result is to increase our 
membership. We have now 760 life members and 165 annual 
members; a total of 925. In 1915 we had 934 members. In 1871 
we had over 1,000 members. We have really gone back a bit dur- 
ing the year. Let us increase the membership at least 100 dur- 
ing this year. 

Exhibitions: A year ago the Trustees conceived the plan of 
having one or two special shows during the year. It was the show 
in May, last year, the object of which was to attract exhibits from 
a wider field, to stimulate the growing of new varieties, to eliminate 
as far as possible repetition from year to year of the same class of 
exhibits, and to effect this result, it is proposed to have the special 
shows come at different times of the year. 

The special exhibitions this year are to be the March Show, the 
Outdoor June Show, and the October Fruit Show. March Show: 
Something over $4,000 in prizes have been provided for this Show, 
this being a favorable season for indoor products. June Outdoor 
Show: The Society has held out-of-door shows three times during 
its existence, — the first in 1852, Public Gardens ; the second in 
1855, Boston Common; the third in 1873, on Boston Common 
under the supervision of Mr. Hollis Hunnewell and Prof. Charles 
S. Sargent. Mr. Hunnewell guaranteed the Society against loss 
from this show, but instead of resulting in a loss, the Society made a 
handsome return. Prof. Sargent and Mr. Walter Hunnewell may 
be called the sponsors for the coming show in June. The grounds 



10 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

of the Arioch Wentworth Institute on Huntington Avenue, contain- 
ing about 3 acres, will be graded and enclosed, and an artificial pond 
will be constructed. Five separate tents will be provided for the 
different exhibits and there will be another tent for a general exhibit. 
Professor Sargent will exhibit azaleas, Mr. Thomas Roland will 
exhibit roses, Mr. Farquhar will exhibit a rock garden, Messrs. 
Dane, Cooley, and others will exhibit orchids. 250 rhododendrons 
are already on way from England from Mr. Waterer, and rhodo- 
dendrons will also be exhibited by Mr. Hunnewell. There will be 
no money prizes except such Special Prizes as may be offered by 
members or friends of the Society. The general plan follows that 
adopted in the London Shows. 

No expense of any kind will fall upon the Society. An admission 
fee will be charged and it is hoped in this way to cover expenses; 
the loss, if any, is to be borne by various subscribers, a dozen or more 
having already signed a promise to this effect. We expect that the 
show will excel anything of the kind ever given in this country, 
and every member should interest himself in its success. Mr. 
Thomas Allen is in general charge, and any member may secure 
space by applying to him. Any member who may expect to have 
anything to show should give early notice as the space is fast being 
allotted. 

The Fall Fruit Show in conjunction with the biennial meetings 
of the Pomological Society and the New England Fruit Show will be 
held some time in October. The Society has appropriated $2,000 
for prizes and expenses incident to this show of which SI, 000 is to be 
raised by subscriptions from members and friends of the Society. 

This general statement of our purposes for the year we hope 
indicates to our members that the Trustees are working hard to 
advance the work in which our Society is engaged. Please remem- 
ber that it is always easy to criticise and find fault. Take hold 
and do constructive work, and do not stand on the side lines ready 
to criticise what others are earnestly trying to accomplish. 

For a busy lawyer who is very much of an amateur in the science 
of horticulture, it is not easy at times to give the time and thought 
required to assist in carrying along these various undertakings. 
Any eifort, to accomplish good results, requires time, thought and 
energy from those in charge. I pledge myself to give freely of 



INAUGURAL MEETING 11 

these during this year, certainly the last year of my presidency, 
but I must have your cooperation and support to accomplish suc- 
cessful results. 

At the conclusion of his address the President called for the 
reports of officers and chairmen of committees which were presented 
in the following order : 

Report of the Treasurer, Walter Hunnewell. 

Report of the Board of Trustees, by the Secretary. 

Report of the Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions, James 
Wheeler, Chairman. 

Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers, William Ander- 
son, Chairman. 

Report of the Committee on Fruits, Edward B. Wilder, Chairman. 

Report of the Committee on Vegetables, John L. Smith, Chair- 
man. 

Report of the Committee on Gardens, Richard M. Saltonstall, 
Chairman. 

Report of the Committee on Children's Gardens, Henry S. 
Adams, Chairman. 

Report of the Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture, Edward 
B. Wilder. 

Report of the Committee on Lectures and Publications, Wilfrid 
Wheeler, Chairman. 

Report of the Secretary and Librarian. 

The various reports were separately accepted with thanks and 
referred to the Committee on Publications for record in the Trans- 
actions of the Society. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 

W t illiam P. Rich, 

Secretary. 



HORTICULTURAL PAPERS. 



SEED SOWING SUGGESTIONS. 
By William X. Craig, Brooklixe, Mass. 



Delivered before the .Society, January 20, 1917. 



Of the various methods of propagation in common usage, which 
include layering, grafting, budding, leaf cuttings, shoot cuttings, 
roots, and seeds, the last named is many times more important 
horticulturally as well as agriculturally than all others combined. 
There may be less skill necessary in the production of plants from 
seeds than other methods named, which are in many cases neces- 
sary for the keeping of true stocks, and in some instances seed 
propagation would be undesirable, but broadly speaking both 
horticulture and agriculture depend overwhelmingly for their 
existence on seeds. This be it noted is Xature's plan in forest and 
field the world over, in tropical, temperate, and arctic climes. It 
is far the most natural method whereby the majority of plants 
reproduce themselves, not always absolutely true to type, as this 
depends on insect agencies and foreign pollen which affect their 
fertilization. If, however, all plants naturally reproduced them- 
selves true from seeds the wonderful variations we have in plants, 
flowers, and other forms of plant life could not have been obtained 
by cross breeding, and artificial fertilization and improvements 
made would necessarily have been very much slower. A seed 
is botanically a ripened ovule; it contains what is called an embryo 
or miniature plant, with leaves, a bud, and a descending axis; 
it is in brief a little dormant plant. What are in a broad sense 
termed seeds are in many cases fruits; some of these contain more 
than one seed or growing points, as in the case of such plants as 
beets, mangel wurzel, seakale, and lettuce. Xuts in variety, 
acorns etc. are really fruits; so are some of the cereals, and seeds 
of raspberries, blackberries, strawberries, and other fruits. Many 
winged seeds flying from such trees as elms, maples, and lindens are 
fruits containing a single seed. The wind carries many of these 
long distances, and thus disseminates them more widely; birds and 

15 



16 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

animals assist in the wider distribution of nuts, acorns, and numer- 
ous seeds. 

It would be easily possible to speak for an entire afternoon on the 
fascinating subjects of seed distribution throughout the world; 
sources of seed supplies, and quantities and values of seeds pro- 
duced; but it is my purpose rather to discuss the somewhat more 
limited, but more practical side of seed sowing itself. This may 
seem to many to be a very simple task, but owing to the fact that 
many seeds require quite long periods for germination, that many 
are almost infinitesimal in size and need very careful sowing, and 
that there are peculiarities in not a few varieties which demand 
special treatment for them, the field of seed sowing is less narrow 
than many might imagine. 

The great European war has seriously impaired the supply of 
many seeds on which America has in the past depended; particu- 
larly is this the case with flower seeds, but vegetables are likewise 
affected. Blockades prevent more than a fractional part of our 
average annual importations from arriving, embargoes by certain 
of the belligerent nations prevent the exportations of certain varie- 
ties, and as America is as yet unprepared to produce seeds of as 
pure quality and moderate cost as many of those received from 
Europe, there are likely to be acute shortages in certain varieties 
this season, while the seeds will probably be less pure in quality 
and there will be more errors in nomenclature. Purchasers of 
seeds should remember these things, place their seed orders early 
and be patient pending deliveries. 

We now produce in America an immense quantity of both flower 
and vegetable seeds, and could no doubt profitably raise many more, 
but not all that we need. The countries of the world will continue 
to be more or less inter-dependent on each other for seeds as for 
many other necessary commodities. Certain favorable soil and 
climatic conditions are necessary for the successful production of 
all seeds, and even we with our big country and much diversified 
climate cannot secure all of these vital requirements. 

The annual wastage in purchased seeds is tremendous; particu- 
larly is this the case with the large and increasing army of amateur 
cultivators, who derive much pleasure while making their seed 
selections during the winter months from the numerous attractive 
catalogues and who invariably start their gardening with consider- 



SEED SOWING SUGGESTIONS 17 

able enthusiasm, which latter quality, alas, in too many cases 
becomes evanescent before the crops come to maturity. Much 
seed is annually lost by improper conditions of the soil at sowing 
time, by seeding far too thickly, and not infrequently sowing in 
drills in which chemical fertilizers have been scattered and not 
properly incorporated with the soil. Seedsmen are annually 
blamed for many "crop failures" which are traceable to seed sowing 
in drills too heavily fertilized, in which the chemicals have not been 
properly mixed with mother earth. 

Points of merit to be considered about good farm and garden seeds 
are: that they are able to produce vigorous or normal plants, that 
they are true to strain or name, and carry no impurities or adul- 
terations. In the case of grass seeds adulterations are still too 
abundant, but conditions, thanks to government inspections, are 
steadily improving. Whether seeds have virility depends in great 
measure on the condition of the plants producing them, also on their 
age and the way they have been grown and stored. 

Certain seeds like melons, beets, carrots, rape, squash, turnip, 
and cabbage have good germinating qualities for five or six years, in 
fact, 10-year-old seeds of some of these will grow, and I have in mind 
a case which came under my own personal notice 35 years ago, when 
I had occasion to sow seeds of a one-time favorite melon named 
Munro's Little Heath in a hot-bed; the seeds had been kept for 
over 18 years yet they germinated well and the melons fruited 
satisfactorily. On the other hand sweet corn, millet, parsnip, 
wheat, onion, soy beans, peas, and oats have lost their power of 
germination in large measure in two or three years. 

Much of the success or failure in seed sowing depends on the 
proper preparation of the beds for all outdoor crops; a really 
vigorous start is a long step towards a good crop. The correct 
preparation of the soil has for its main object a good seed bed, the 
increasing of root pasturage, and the amelioration of the soil 
chemically arid physically. If seeds germinate freely it should be 
in close contact with a thoroughly pulverized and later firmly 
settled soil. Both hand and horse tools are available in plenty 
for pulverizing the soil. The drier it is at seeding time, the more 
necessary it is to firm well by rolling or some other method, in 
order to secure a good germination. 

There is an immense variety of seeds with widely varying needs. 



18 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

I will speak briefly on the requirements of the various classes into 
which these are divided. There is an old axiom which says that in 
order to have seeds germinate well they should be covered with 
twice their own diameter of soil. This is hardly correct. It is 
true that the majority of seeds might germinate well if treated thus, 
but in the case of outdoor crops much depends on the time of year 
seeds are sown. For instance — taking vegetables first — garden 
peas when sown very early should not be covered more than 2-2J 
inches, successional sowings should go an inch deeper, and late 
sowings, made from May 20 to June 15, from 4 J to 5 inches deep. 
When the soil is very dry it materially hastens germination to run a 
watering can along the drills and dampen the seeds well; this is 
preferable to soaking the seeds over night. The latter plan, good 
in many ways', has some drawbacks. There is always danger of 
soaking rains rendering the soil unfit for seed sowing at the time 
the peas should go in. A point worth remembering about peas 
is, that they are the most nutritious of any vegetables ; they extract 
a great deal of nourishment from the soil and for that reason they 
should, if possible, be given a piece of ground well manured for some 
crop like celery the year previously. If the fertilizing element is 
placed too near the seeds the plants do not root freely, hence the 
desirability of keeping it some distance away, incorporating it well 
with the soil, and thus make the roots more active. Peas are the 
most important pecuniarily of all garden vegetables, seed sales of 
them exceed that of the three next most important vegetables com- 
bined. 

Root crops such as carrots, beets, parsnips, salsify, turnips, and 
scorzonera should be sown on land on which no fresh manure has 
been used, if clean roots are desired; ground well manured the pre- 
vious year will suit them to a nicety. Carrots and turnips are 
easily sown too thickly; this entails a lot of additional work at 
thinning time. For the later sowings be sure to firm the soil well 
if the ground is very dry. It is not unusual in a dry season for seeds 
of root crops to lie dormant for a number of weeks. If seeds of the 
various root crops are covered an average of one inch it will be found 
about right. 

Hot-beds or cold frames are invaluable for starting many vege- 
table and flower seeds in; even a very small garden should contain 



SEED SOWING SUGGESTIONS 19* 

one. It is best to excavate it to a depth of 12-18 inches, place 
warm manure mixed with leaves in this, watering it if at all dry, and 
then thoroughly tramping it; over this place 4 inches of soil consist- 
ing preferably of loam and very old, well-rotted and pulverized, 
manure, use some leaf mold if soil is at all heavy, screen at least the 
upper half of the soil, draw shallow drills and in them sow seeds, 
very lightly cover, of early cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, tomato, 
egg plant, celery, and pepper. It is well to remember that seeds 
sown in cold frames, or in flats or pans in a greenhouse, need much 
lighter covering than the same varieties of seeds sown outdoors. 

Do not sow vegetables or flower seeds broadcast in the frames, nor 
outdoors; if in drills it is possible to cultivate between them, also 
weed and thin them; for seeds of slow germination broadcasting 
is permissible but it is a slovenly system for outdoor crops which 
make quick growth and will yield at best but half a crop. It is a 
system which can safely be commended to the lazy man who would 
be satisfied with a fraction of a crop. 

If birds or rodents trouble peas, beans, squash, sweet corn, and 
other crops, roll the seeds in a mixture of coal tar and lime before 
sowing, one taste usually suffices for either feathered or furry foes. 
The coating of tar and lime will not affect the germinating qualities 
of the seeds treated. Mice are sometimes very troublesome where 
lettuce, tomato, endive, and other small vegetable seeds are started 
under glass; traps and cats are useful, but a little white arsenic 
mixed in toasted cornflakes which have been slightly moistened 
acts even more effectively. 

Success with onions is more certain if the same ground is used for 
them each year, and if it is thoroughly firmed before drills are drawn 
at all. In choosing a seed bed for cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels 
sprouts, and savoys be sure to select one which is free from club 
root, or better not sow at all ; this disease annually destroys many 
of the Brassicas and its presence shows an over acid condition of the 
soil, which a liberal dressing of lime in the fall will help to remedy. 
Always sow seeds of this class of vegetables thinly in the drills; if 
not you must thin while small or plants will be pure weaklings. 
Remember that leafy crops such as spinach, Swiss chard, lettuce, 
endive, and rhubarb should have a soil rich in nitrogen, the best 
form of which is good barnyard manure and that fruiting varieties 



20 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

such as tomatoes, egg plants, and peppers like considerable potash 
in the soil. If you like sweet corn sow an early batch an inch deep 
about April 20, later sowings two inches deep, and as late as July 4 
for an average season. No garden can be called complete without 
its patch of herbs; sow any of these from May 1 to 15; cover such 
fine seeds as thyme and sweet marjoram very sparingly; summer 
savory, dill, fennel, sweet basil, lavender, borage, and other sorts 
can be covered one inch. 

I have only touched on some vegetables but must now turn to 
flowers; these on the whole need much more careful covering than 
vegetables. Of the better known and hardier annuals, quite a 
number are better started in a hot-bed or greenhouse ; this includes 
such popular subjects as asters, stocks, salpiglossis, salvias, zinnias, 
marigolds, nemesias, verbenas, petunias, vincas, lobelias, phlox 
drummondi, snapdragons, and balsams. The majority of these 
may also be started outdoors but it is much more satisfactory to 
start under glass. Petunias and lobelias have very small seeds and 
should be sown in pans which should be well drained, some moss 
placed over the drainage, a little coarse soil over this, and the 
balance should consist of equal parts loam and leaf mold with a good 
dash of sand through it; this should be passed through a fine 
screen, then pressed firmly in the pans with a piece of board, 
watered with a watering pot with a fine rose, dusted with sand, and 
the fine seeds scattered over this. Take a pinch of seed between the 
forefinger and thumb and*distribute it as evenly as possible over the 
surface and do not cover the seed at all. To prevent seed washing 
to the side of the pans cut a piece of tissue paper and lay over the 
surface of the pans and water over this ; it helps to prevent drying 
of the soil and stops seed washing; it decays and allows seedlings 
to push through it readily. This plan is not necessary where 
experts are sowing and caring for seeds but it will prove useful to 
amateurs sowing such small seeds as petunias, lobelias, begonias, 
gloxinias, mimulus, etc. 

Such well known annuals as bachelor's buttons, mignonette, 
candytuft, lupines, poppies, sweet alyssum, and godetias can be 
sown as soon as frost has left the ground and it has dried sufficiently 
to be workable. Sweet peas cannot be sown too early after frost 
has gone; the roots will go well down into the cool, moist earth 



SEED SOWING SUGGESTIONS 21 

before the growths appear; cover two inches deep but never hill 
up, as too many catalogues and magazine writers recommend, or 
you will regret it. 

Sow that splendid annual hunnemannia or Mexican poppy 
about May 10, which is also a safe date to sow salpiglossis, one of 
our most beautiful annuals, and others which are more or less 
tender. Such annuals as scabious, brachycomes, gypsophila, 
sweet sultan, clarkia, portulacas, calendulas, coreopsis, statices, 
cfnysanthemums, larkspurs, dianthus, sunflowers, gaillardias, 
schizanthus, nemophila, love-in-a-mist, eschscholtzias, and cosmos 
may be safely sown any time after April 15 in this latitude if the 
ground has become dry; if not it is safer to wait a couple of weeks. 
Such subjects as gypsophila elegans, larkspurs, shirley poppies, 
clarkias, schizanthus, candytuft, and sweet alyssum should be 
sown two or three times to secure a succession of bloom, making 
the last sowing as near June 1 as possible. 

Hardy herbaceous perennials are wonderfully popular now. I 
well remember the fight waged by Mr. William Robinson through 
the columns of the English "Garden" to secure them suitable 
recognition in the early '80's of the last century. A great propor- 
tion of these hardy plants are easily and inexpensively raised from 
seed. Taking first those usually treated as biennials, but some of 
which are perennial, we have pansies, bedding violas, double 
daisies, rockets, forget-me-nots, Canterbury bells, foxgloves, 
hollyhocks, and honesty; of these, pansies, violas, forget-me-nots 
and daisies should be sown in a cold frame, or in a shaded position 
outdoors from July 25 to August 1. Foxgloves and Canterbury 
bells need sowing in May, and hollyhocks in early July. For 
anyone unable to succeed with the perennial hollyhocks I would 
commend the annual type; these sown in April will flower well the 
same season, and rarely are affected by rust. 

Amongst the varieties of hardy perennials which come with ease 
from seeds are: delphiniums, aquilegias, campanulas, centaureas, 
shasta daisies, poppies, thalictrums, lupines, galegas, hibiscus, 
pentstemons, doronicums, eryngiums, asters, and kniphofias; any 
of these will start readily in cold frames in light soil in April and 
May or August, or if strong plants are wanted in the fall, sowing 
can be done in flats or pans in a greenhouse in January or February. 



22 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Some perennials of slower germination are anemones, aconitums, 
dictamnus, trollius, some eupatoriums, some primulas and liliums, 
which latter are bulbous but are popular subjects in the hardy 
flower border. The varieties of slow germination are better sown 
in the fall when the seed is ripe and fresh; it will do no harm to 
allow the soil to freeze over winter, but the flats or seed beds 
should be mulched with dry leaves, tight sashes being placed over 
these. 

Rock or alpine plants have become immensely popular the last 
two or three years and deservedly so; this is one of the most 
fascinating types of gardening, and a large proportion of the plants 
adaptable for rock gardens can be raised from seed, while many 
germinate very readily. Others are quite slow, occasionally 
requiring one or even two years to start. Some of those which 
appear quickly above ground are alyssums, aubrietias, arabis, 
campanulas, dianthus, arenarias, violas, many sedums, many 
primulas, potentillas, tunicas, geums, leontopodiums, androsaces, 
myosotis, cheiranthus, linarias, veronicas, and geraniums. Seed 
of rock plants can be sown in flats, or pans in a greenhouse, or in 
very shallow drills 6 inches apart in cold frames. I like to bake 
the soil for covering the seeds; this kills out all weed seeds and 
fungoid growths; it should be sifted over them through a fine 
screen. Seedlings if pricked out into other cold frames when of 
sufficient size and kept well watered can in the majority of cases 
be safely planted out in September, and if lightly mulched will 
winter perfectly, and bloom much better than the same stock 
planted out the following spring. 

Coming to seeds of tender greenhouse plants, such varieties as 
gloxinias, tuberous begonias, gesnerias, tydaeas, and others with 
very fine seeds should be sown in pans of prepared compost as 
recommended for petunias and other garden annuals. The greatest 
care is necessary in sowing each of these; pans must be watered 
before and not immediately after seed is sown, sheets of glass should 
cover all pans, and paper or cloth be placed over this to exclude 
sunlight and prevent drying out; gradually remove the coverings 
as germination starts. Calceolarias have fine seeds and a fine 
dusting of sand is all the covering they need; over cinerarias should 
be placed a little fine earth; the same is true of primulas. Cycla- 



SEED SOWING SUGGESTIONS 23 

mens like a very light covering of fine sandy soil. The proper time 
to sow gloxinias, begonias, and gesnerias is January; primulas 
sinensis, obconica, and kewensis should be started in January or 
February, but the beautiful and decorative P. malacoides not until 
July; calceolarias and cinerarias can also be started in July and 
cyclamens in August. Schizanthus, nemesias, calendulas, mignon- 
ette, statices and other annuals for flowering under glass should be 
sown in August and September, and snapdragons for early winter 
flowering not later than May 15. All greenhouse seeds sown in 
winter need a warm, moist house in which to germinate. 

Seeds of such palms as cocos, phoenix, kentia, and latania if 
fresh usually germinate readily if sown in pans and plunged in a 
brisk bottom heat in a warm house. Anthuriums want similar 
treatment, but like to be sown in a mixture of chopped fern root 
and sphagnum moss. Seeds of crotons, dracaenas, marantas, and 
various tropical plants all need a brisk moist heat. Cannas have 
very hard seeds and start better if some of the shell is cut with a 
sharp knife, taking care not to cut the growing point; seeds should 
be soaked in tepid water for 24 hours before sowing; moonflowers 
need similar treatment. Sweet peas, especially light shelled 
varieties, if trimmed with a knife also start better and this plan is 
suggested for the more valuable varieties to be started under glass. 
Cobaea scandens, a popular climber, germinates better if the seeds 
are stood edgewise in the pots or pans. 

Orchid seeds require radically different treatment from those of 
all other plants. Seed pods of cattleyas usually ripen about a year 
after fertilization; a pod will contain anywhere from 200,000 to 
500,000 seeds which are remarkably fine and light. All orchid seeds 
germinate best if sown in spring; they are less certain if started in 
summer or winter. I have had the best success with cattleyas, 
laelio-cattleyas, and other bi-generic hybrids, also cypripediums, 
by sowing the seeds on coarse bath towel or burlap stretched inside 
a glass case, the same being damped before seeds are sown, or in 
filling 4 inch pots with chopped fern fibre and over the tops laying 
pieces of bath towel and tucking them closely down the inside edges 
of the pots with a pointed stick, having the surface raised and well 
rounded. Seed can be sown at the rate of 20,000 or more per 
square inch; sometimes none will germinate, the seed being barren, 



24 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

at other times one or two may start, but sometimes the surfaces 
will be covered with tiny seedlings; these not infrequently start 
from the sides of the pots. Sometimes seedlings will appear within 
a month, at other times not for six or more months; great care is 
necessary in spraying, ventilating and shading the cases, and insect 
pests and fungoid growths must be fought. Under the most favor- 
able conditions seedlings may flower in three to five years, but many 
of the best crosses require double that length of time. The orchid 
seedling raiser must be a pure specialist; he needs lots of patience 
and must never be of a nervous temperament. 

Aquatic plants such as Nymphaeas and Nelumbiums germinate 
well if seeds are sown in small pots singly and submerged in tanks 
or trays of warm water in a warm house ; if started in early spring 
the majority will attain sufficient size to flower the first season. 

Ferns are raised from spores which when ripe should be cut off, 
placed in small bags, kept for a few days and then sown in square 
pans of a compost consisting of equal parts loam and peat with a 
good dash of sand mixed with it, and sterilized in advance; pans 
must be watered before spores are sown and pans must be kept in a 
close moist case to ensure good germination. 

The propagation of trees and shrubs from seeds would use up an 
entire afternoon in itself if gone into at all thoroughly; I can only 
refer to a few of each. The propagation of both trees and shrubs is 
left almost entirely in the hands of nurserymen, with the exception 
of a limited number of private estates and such institutions as the 
Arnold Arboretum. There is no good reason why many more small 
growers should not do a little of this propagating as many varieties 
come very easily from seed; in many cases starting almost as 
quickly as our common annuals. 

The various pines, spruces, firs, and thujas can be sown in early 
May in open frames in well pulverized soil which should be levelled 
and then well watered; sow the seed broadcast rather than in 
drills as the plants must remain at least one year in the seed beds ; 
after seeding, sift a light covering of fine loam over the beds, cover 
this with a mulch of leaves slightly decayed. A safe plan is to 
enclose the ground or grounds with fine mesh wire netting to prevent 
birds or animals entering and scratching, and later cover the top 
with burlap. In about 30 days seedlings (under normal conditions) 



SEED SOWING SUGGESTIONS 25 

of pines and spruces will be germinated sufficiently so that the mold 
can be removed. Seeds of evergreens are light. A pound of white 
pine will average 15,000 to 20,000 seeds and one of red pine 28,000 to 
30,000, and if the seed is fresh the larger proportion should grow. 
In small batches evergreen tree seeds can be sown in pans or shallow 
flats in an ordinary greenhouse. All evergreens do not start so 
readily as those named however, and in the cases of most of the 
junipers and yews, germination is slow, seeds frequently not starting 
until the second year. As between sowing seeds of the slow germi- 
nating ones in fall or spring the former season is best if a greenhouse 
is at command, the seeds being then fresher. 

Rhododendrons, kalmias, andromedas, callunas, ericas, and 
azaleas start best in pans of sandy peat, over which a thin layer of 
fine dry sphagnum moss is screened; the seed can be sown over 
this, and water then applied through a fine rose; seed will germinate 
much better sown on moss than direct on the soil; a temperature of 
55° will suit those seeds in the early stages of growth. 

Nuts of various kinds, also acorns, are better sown soon after 
harvesting and exposed to frost which loosens the shells and makes 
germination more easy. If not sown in late fall, it is better to carry 
them over winter in moist sand. Fruits of many plants including 
cotoneasters, hawthorns, hollies, loniceras, pyrus, and other fruiting 
varieties, should be stratified in dry sand if not sown in late fall 
outdoors or in the greenhouse; if outdoors they must be mulched. 
Freezing undoubtedly advances the time of germination of many 
seeds, but seed beds and pans will in many cases require to be kept 
a second season, as a large number will not start the first year. 
The longer seeds of this kind are kept in a dry state, the slower they 
will be in starting. 

On the other hand many deciduous shrubs like buddleias, lilacs, 
deutzias, spiraeas, and viburnums come very readily from seeds. 
Shallow flats or pans containing sandy loam seem adaptable to 
about all tree and shrub seeds except the members of the ericaceae 
family which prefer a peaty soil. Elms, maples, and lindens all 
come easily from seeds which can be sown either in fall or spring. 
There are some slow and fussy subjects amongst trees and shrubs 
just as there are amongst other plants. It would take too long 
to mention each specifically; as a general rule trees' and shrubs are 



26 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

not much more difficult to raise from seeds than are annuals and 
perennials. Clematis paniculata is better sown as soon as ripe, 
the seeds will then appear in abundance the following summer; if 
not sown until spring a large proportion will not appear until the 
second season. 

Lawn seeding is too often improperly done; it should be preceded, 
in the case of new lawns by very careful preparation of the soil, 
frequent raking being necessary to make a perfect seed bed. The 
seed being very light, a calm day should be selected for seeding. 
A common mistake made is in sowing too thickly. Heavily seeded 
lawns may look well at first and give a good immediate effect, but 
the individual plants being so terribly crowded lack vigor, and it is 
not by any means unusual during spells of hot, moist, and dark 
weather to find rot setting in, this will not occur when seed is sown 
more thinly. As a general rule 40-50 pounds of lawn seed should 
suffice for an acre, but as quality is very variable this may some- 
times prove insufficient. The best all-around grass for our New 
England lawns is Kentucky blue grass, to which should be added 
some red top and Rhode Island bent, and where clover is liked 
add a little white clover. The best time to do seeding is from mid- 
August to mid-September; the next best period is from April 10 
to May 15. To seed a lawn properly seed should be sown both 
lengthwise and crosswise; there are then unlikely to be any bare 
patches. A thorough raking and rolling must follow seedings and 
this rolling can advantageously be done several times through the 
season. In seeding bare patches on well established lawns, first 
scratch the spaces to be seeded and next mix some fine loam with 
grass seed and scatter over said bare spots. This is better than 
scattering the seed over the vacant patches and giving these a 
scratch with an iron rake. For permanent pastures August is 
far the best month to do seeding; spring seeding is usually more or 
less of a failure. 

A point worth emphasizing is that seedlings of many garden 
plants possess much greater vigor and are more disease proof than 
the same varieties raised from cuttings. Hollyhocks and verbenas 
were some years ago decimated by disease and their very extinction 
even was threatened owing to their persistent propagation from 
cuttings over a long term of years. Since seedlings were raised 



SEED SOWING SUGGESTIONS 27 

nearly all this debility has passed; the same is true of cinerarias. 
Of late years antirrhinums have advanced tremendously in popu- 
larity both as an indoor and outdoor plant. Under glass it has been 
clearly proven that seedlings are more vigorous, more floriferous, 
and vastly more disease resistant than plants raised from cuttings. 
Amongst vegetables there is simply no comparison in the vigor of 
tomatoes and cucumbers propagated from cuttings as compared 
with seedlings. Cuttings we know will always be necessary to 
secure fixed types of many plants, but seeds are and will be the 
principal means whereby plants of the majority of garden plants are 
to be propagated and perpetuated. 

I must admit that I have omitted mention of a whole host of 
plants which can be raised from seeds, but this lecture has its 
limitations and I would not like to try the patience of my audience 
too much. To those about to purchase seeds I would say secure 
the best, as they prove to be the cheapest in the end. Do not 
trust too much to free seeds from Washington; a large percentage 
of these are old and inferior varieties. Free seed distribution would 
be a decided benefit if small sample packets of new, choice, and 
really desirable varieties were sent out to be tested, but as at present 
carried out, free seed distribution has little to recommend it, apart 
from benefits which may accrue to certain congressmen and their 
constituents, and the practice has for years been condemned by 
practically all horticultural and agricultural periodicals and bodies 
in America. 

For past improvements in garden plants we owe debts of gratitude 
to many untiring specialists, and their continued efforts will still 
further benefit us. Finality is unattainable in the plant world and 
this adds a wondrous charm to horticulture. Novelties we are 
getting year by year are ever welcome and should always be given 
a fair trial. Do not condemn novelties after one season's test; 
frequently a second year may greatly improve them. We must 
continue to depend for our supplies on tried and tested varieties 
which experience has taught us will succeed best in our special 
soils and gardens. By growing good varieties, growing them as well 
as we can, and adding novelties as they appear, we will have not 
only good produce in abundance but our gardens will year by year 
furnish new points to attract and enthuse us. 



THE FORMATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF MASSA- 
CHUSETTS PEAT LANDS AND SOME OF THEIR 

USES. 

By Dr. Alfred P. Dachnowski, Washington, D. C. 



Delivered before the Society, January 27, 1917. 
Illustrated by means of lantern slides and samples of peat material. 



Reference to any good topographic map of Massachusetts will 
show a surprisingly large number of unimproved peat lands favor- 
ably located to various important market centers and to the chief 
lines of transportation radiating from Boston. In no state of the 
Union is the development of peat land resources for their food yield- 
ing value of greater importance than in Massachusetts, where agri- 
culture in the last 5 years has seen a great change and in the further 
growth of which are interested the commercial and industrial pros- 
perity of over 4,000,000 people. 

The passage of legislation by the State Board of Health for the 
drainage of some of these peat lands and the establishment of a 
provision to extend the activities of the drainage engineers to aid 
in the preparation of peat lands for agricultural and other purposes 
constitutes a notable recognition of agriculture in a new direction. 
Not only does this imply the harmonious working together for ends 
of a common good, but more primarily the realization that the great 
peat land areas can be made a valuable resource to the state only 
through well planned measures controlled by State Departments 
working in cooperation. 

Today the great increase in population demands the use of peat 
lands for the growth of crops and for various industrial purposes. 
But trie very factors, however, which have brought about this great 
accumulation of vegetable material, and which constitutes a gain in 
land as against the loss upon mineral upland by erosion and leach- 
ing, may also introduce with them certain possible sources of failure. 
The great profits obtainable from the cultivation of truck crops may 

29 



30 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

lead to the use of certain kinds of peat land at the expense of other 
types of farming which would be less liable to failure or to dangerous 
limitations. The desire for rapid returns may not in a few instances 
encourage the landholder to ignore the wise rule of crop adaptation 
through crop rotation with suitable varieties; he may fail to heed 
the decreases in yield which follow a lack of knowledge of the 
different peat materials and their characteristics, especially the 
changes in conditions, such as the water table whose influence 
requires close and continuous study. 

It would be well, therefore, to consider what is the position of 
Massachusetts in this matter of peat land utilization and what work 
should be done towards obtaining a fair degree of success in local 
areas with peat lands differing in material and in field conditions. 

Several important elements enter into the problem under con- 
sideration, which for convenience are named (1) the influence of 
vegetation; (2) the influence of climate; and (3) the geological 
and topographic factors. 

I. The influence of vegetation. 

The native vegetation which covers the peat lands of today 
presents to the careful observer unmistakable features in regard 
to the predominating plant associations forming peat materials and 
the diversity of habitats which they reflect. Their various growth 
forms are correlated in the main with variations in the ground 
water table and they represent distinct effects in the method of 
building up strata of peat. Changes in the character of the indige- 
nous vegetation of peat lands are as a general rule very slow under 
ordinary circumstances. This fact is so striking that the appear- 
ance of certain bog plants should serve the intelligent farmer not 
only as an index to environmental conditions and their products 
but also as a guide in the selection of his farm practice. 

It is well known, however, that commonly the variations in peat 
materials over the surface area, and the nature of the sub-surface 
materials are rarely if ever examined in any detail, and are often 
entirely omitted from observation. Whether or not peat materials 
consist of layers of vegetable debris easily penetrated by roots of 
crop plants, by water and air so that they will weather, shrink and 
yet drain readily, or whether root penetration is limited by beds of 
material unlike in composition and degree of disintegration, such 



MASSACHUSETTS PEAT LANDS 31 

as layers of plastic peat derived from aquatic plants or formed under 
periods of flooded and high water conditions; layers of granular 
material resulting from woody shrubs during periods of excessive 
drought conditions or following drainage changes; whether dis- 
tinctions in the materials arise on account of strata of windfallen 
timber or of drifted impurities, such as ashes, silt, clay, or marl, the 
amounts of which depend on the currents of streams and rivers, their 
flooding power, etc.; whether plant growth and crop yield are 
influenced by a hardpan of fine-grained organic material or by one 
arising from compounds with lime or with iron ; whether the contact 
layers of peaty material with a bottom of sand, gravel, clay, diato- 
maceous earth, or marl are continuous or not, and whether the 
mineral soils below, or those along the margins of the peat land, 
indicate predominantly solution and bleaching action or a deposi- 
tion and "staining" process with mottled coloring, — all these 
points are of the greatest practical import. Marked physical 
differences arise from the several materials which undergo disinte- 
gration, in the relative abundance of that indefinite, fine-grained 
debris which plays the role in distinctions between heavy and light 
peat lands and which gives a certain degree of adhesive plasticity, 
but under some conditions render the surface peat soil almost 
impervious to water, probably due to the absorption of air. 

The physical nature of the different peat and muck lands of the 
state and their respective substrata materials are doubtless of the 
widest practical importance, since it is in general more difficult 
to change the nature of the vegetable mass than to remedy the 
chemical deficiencies. Aside from the modifying influences of field 
conditions this is probably one reason why a chemical analysis of an 
organic soil is generally of little value in establishing relations to 
crop productivity. It is necessary, therefore, at least in somewhat 
more detail than undertaken hitherto, to understand the differences 
in the respective groups of peat lands, the phases of their materials 
and the field conditions under which they were formed. A profit- 
able use of them can be made with related cultural methods and a 
choice of suitable crops. How important a detailed investigation 
may become to Massachusetts and for that matter to any other 
state, in view of the existing great geographical differences in 
climate, geology, and vegetational influences affecting the character 



32 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

of peat lands and their agricultural and industrial possibilities, is 
readily apparent. 

The role of vegetation in the conversion into peat lands of water 
basins or of wet depressions on uplands, along rivers, or at the coast 
has long been recognized, but the sequence of plant associations 
forming peat, the possible retrogressions, the origin and the condi- 
tions giving rise especially to ericaceous heath-bogs, and lastly the 
manner in which peat accumulation takes place are still problems 
at present under much discussion by investigators. 

The general conclusions formed from one point of view lead, 
briefly stated, to the following: In common with other glaciated 
regions the origin of the modern era of plant life in Massachusetts 
dates back to the period when the continental glaciers receded 
toward the North pole and vegetation from the south and west once 
more migrated northward in the wake of the retreating ice sheet. 
During the time that has elapsed since the recession of the ice front, 
variously estimated at from 30,000 years for southern states to 
20,000 years or less for northern states, many plant societies have 
doubtless occupied this region, which at »the present time are char- 
acteristic of regions farther north. Thus the first vegetation to 
seize upon the areas which became exposed gradually may have 
been quite similar to the tundra of the far north, extensive, 
compact mats of herbaceous plants, and woody, prostrate forms, 
shrubby in appearance and chiefly of the ericaceous family. Fol- 
lowing the tundra there developed slowly, it is presumed, a type of 
bog shrub stage and later one of temporary climax vegetation simi- 
lar to the spruce and fir forests, which still comprise an important 
element on the peat lands of northern Massachusetts. Last of all 
followed in their northward march components from the southern 
coastal district, and from the plateau regions the deciduous and 
hardwood trees and their dependents, which at the present time 
predominate on the peat lands of such states as Ohio and Indiana. 

Deciduous trees and some of the plants associated with them 
have now, that is within very recent geological time, regained only 
a position of their original home; they have commenced to invade 
this region and are establishing themselves in the more favorable 
sites, thus giving rise to a mixture of coniferous and deciduous 
forest type of peat lands, transforming them into a new and differ- 



MASSACHUSETTS PEAT LANDS 33 

ent habitat. But the conquest of some of the former lakes, ponds, 
and inundated depressions along rivers and the coast is still going 
on and many of the isolated plant associations still survive as the 
remnants of a more northern type of plant succession. Coastal 
cedar swamps and river marshes are quite suggestive of this fact, 
for the cranberry sphagnum type of bog meadow described else- 
where as one of the members in the classification of peat lands (Ohio 
Geological Survey, Bull. 16, 1912), is of frequent occurrence as the 
ground mat where boreal, certain austral, and even several maritime 
plants may find conditions for growth and establishment. There 
is abundant evidence tending to show that southern plants seem to 
be gaining the ascendancy and that wherever suitable changes in 
drainage and weathering ensue, spruce, fir, tamarack, pine, and 
cedar become replaced largely if not entirely. Red maple, elm, 
ash, and others are contributing more and more to the increasing 
complexity of peat materials. 

Very much of what we wish to know about the composition of 
peat materials, its variations and the effects of these upon crops 
depends, therefore, on the detailed study of profile sections of a peat 
basin; they recapitulate, so to speak, the history of its formation. 
There is a growing recognition of the injustice and the unbusiness- 
like character of treating all kinds of essentially different peat 
materials as being equal in quality and cropping value. It requires 
no argument to show that peat materials are of different composi- 
tion and have different agricultural and industrial possibilities, but 
it demands considerable information and investigation to establish 
these differences scientifically and to show in what manner their 
agricultural and economic value is not the same. The physical 
constitution varies greatly according to locality and topographic 
features and even in the same field; a recognition of the controlling 
or modifying factors would emphasize to those using peat land the 
inherent limitations of the materials. This point is brought out 
clearly from any series of peat samples obtained in a profile sound- 
ing operation. 

The lowest layer is frequently a plastic amorphous peat derived 
in the main from aquatic forms of plant and animal life (diatoms 
etc.), and from disintegrating floating organic debris of the marginal 
vegetation. When the accumulation of this material has reached 



34 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

somewhere a height near the surface water the growth of marginal 
amphibious plants and following them a floating mat of herbaceous 
plants is made possible. Gradually this gives rise to a more or less 
continuous upper stratum of fibrous, felty or matted peat, later 
covering nearly the entire surface of the basin. The plants of 
the same association remain together and they become buried at 
about the same time, as a layer essentially intact. Another change 
in texture, structure, and composition of materials takes place when 
after sufficient settling and firmness, the accumulation of peat con- 
tinues above the water table by the growth of ericaceous and other 
plants, commonly known as bog xerophytes. This type of peat 
material contains, as a layer, woody and leafy components unlike 
in their resistance to disintegration and dominant among which are 
certain waxy and resinous bodies. As the conditions which favor 
more effective weathering, and the action of bacteria and fungi 
improve in duration as well, they begin to support the growth of 
coniferous trees, or of a mixed forest, and later a deciduous meso- 
phytic forest vegetation. 

The organic debris is then chiefly formed from leaf fall and con- 
tains considerable amounts of soluble mineral matter brought to the 
surface by the activity of the roots of trees. Moreover the trees 
and shrubs contribute by their weight to a further sinking of the 
underlying fibrous mat; and by their shade the displacement of 
any surface herbaceous and ericaceous meadow-forms soon follows. 
Thus a more woody layer of peat makes its appearance, partly from 
windfallen timber, which takes on a granular texture as periods of 
drought and changes in the level of the ground water table permit 
the disintegrating and weathering processes to reach greater depths. 
Bearing in mind the great variety of topographic and other field 
conditions, which bring about fluctuations in the vegetation cover, 
or in drifted and in windfallen material, it is easily seen that many 
changes in peat layers and in their intergradations exist, so that it 
is not always possible to assign a given peat land and the series of 
its layers to any definite category of causal factors. Hence a 
careful study of the conditions which exist or may ensue as a result, 
for example of the depth, the number or character of drains, is one 
of greater importance than appears at first sight. 

The main points, however, bearing on crop productivity of peat 
lands are the following: 



MASSACHUSETTS PEAT LANDS 35 

(1) The composition of the horizontal and of the vertical strata 
of peat materials ; 

(2) the degree of disintegration, which is (likewise) dependent 
on (a) the character of plant associations that contributed to the 
deposit originally as well as at the present moment, and (6) the 
duration and effectiveness of drainage, the weathering processes 
and bacterio-fungal agencies under the existing field conditions; 

(3) the shrinkage of the peat materials in relation to the water 
table to be established by drainage measures; 

(4) the permeability of the materials for water, air, and roots of 
crop plants; 

(5) the water content of the surface layer of peat soils when under 
certain crops. 

II. The influence of climate. 

Varied questions are raised by a consideration of the climatic 
factor combined with others due to the change in field conditions, 
in peat materials which partly accompany the sequence of peat 
forming vegetation, in the influence of weathering or leaching proc- 
esses, or in the distribution of rainfall and variations in ground 
water table affecting peat lands. 

The annual rainfall in the New England states ranges from 40 
to 50 inches, the greater amount of which is precipitated during 
winter and in the cooler months of spring and autumn. This 
condition does not compensate for the loss by evaporation during 
the drier summer season and hence a more or less variable water 
level exists upon some peat lands lacking barriers than would be 
possible if the greater precipitation occurred within the warmer 
season of the year. On the other hand a relatively high and perma- 
nent stand of water prevails upon peat lands with natural ridges 
or with low gradient and where dams have been built or ditches 
have been neglected. The special climatic conditions under which 
Massachusetts peat lands have been forming render those with 
fluctuating changes in the water table and those with subterranean 
springs in need of more detailed study. 

There impresses itself upon the observer a condition in the soil 
of certain uplands adjoining peat basins, the character of which 
deserves much thorough investigation. It is strikingly unlike 
anything observed in regional peat lands of a more continental 



36 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

climate. A typical section taken under a forest cover or one of 
heath shrubs shows beneath the peaty humus a layer of leached-out, 
whitish gray sand of varying thickness and underlying it a charac- 
teristic yellow to rusty brownish iron-stained sand becoming lighter 
in color and fading into gray as the depth increases. Where the 
humus blanket has been denuded for one cause or another these 
bleached sands support a correlated heath vegetation resembling 
that of certain peat land areas. The soils appear to be unsuitable 
for ordinary farming practices. 

Not infrequently the proportion of ferruginous constituents is 
found to be much more considerable along the margins of water- 
logged peat lands, while in other cases a bed of bog iron may occur 
at no great depth below the surface peaty debris. In the central 
portions of the peat land the iron salts in a precipitated form are as 
a rule not present. Before deciding on a drainage or utilization 
project it is important, therefore, to ascertain the location, area 
and thickness of the ferruginous layers and to determine the 
chemical nature of the constituents. In origin and formation they 
are post-glacial, i. e., a relatively recent contamination, and it is 
of the highest importance that their further development either as 
black sand, bog iron, or iron pan, should be checked by suitable 
remedial measures. 

It is well known that under water-logged conditions, disintegrat- 
ing organic matter and carbonated waters have a marked dis- 
solving power upon minerals of rocks and soils and hence are very 
potent factors in leaching processes. Leached soils are compara- 
tively poor in mineral plant constituents, especially in lime, 
potash, and iron salts ; leached peat lands are usually acid in reac- 
tion, and require therefore fertilizers and the operations of liming 
or marling to produce the agriculturally desirable qualities of a 
fertile peat land. The humid climate of the New England states 
is very favorable to leaching processes and especially so in the 
presence of organic matter over porous sandy sub-soils. It appears 
that with the gradual increase in the mass of peat materials, ac- 
cumulating since the glacial period on uplands and in lowland areas, 
widespread changes have been brought about from disintegrating 
peat by the waters which contained organic colloidal. complexes in 
suspension and moved upward, downward or laterally, according 



MASSACHUSETTS PEAT LANDS 37 

to circumstances through adjoining sandy areas. It is well known 
that much of the dissolved constituents from the upper soil layer 
is carried down by the seasonal rainfall and is commonly redeposited 
some distance below the surface soil, forming the " pan." The upper 
sand layers are then white or grey in color and very silicious, and 
where a surface layer of peat or humus is absent, the vegetation 
becomes more and more open, and dwarfed and heath-like. The 
land approaches the character of a "barren," since only plants 
with a shallow root system and with a low requirement of nutrition 
and growth appear to be able to thrive and mature. 

With free drainage at deep levels, pan formation is rarely found. 
Investigations of European writers have shown how far-reaching 
is the influence of washing-out or leaching-out of the soluble con- 
stituents of the soil in climates of abundant seasonal rainfall. 
They have pointed out the desirability of avoiding fallows as much 
as possible, and of keeping the soil well occupied by crops, particu- 
larly hay and pasture grasses, certain staple crops, and root crops. 

In the cases where seepage and ground water are not carried 
away by free drainage, the leached materials tend to accumulate 
in the soil and to cement the sandy substrata. During the drier 
season of the year the downward movement of water ceases; the 
groundwaters from the lower layers begin to move upward, and 
the soluble materials have then an upward tendency. 

Periods of drought, strong winds, and consequent evaporation 
favor absorption and the deposition and concentration of iron and 
other salts in solution. The loss of any excess of carbonic acid 
from the underground waters, the presence of alkaline earth, or a 
substratum richer in soluble salts; the increased oxidation in the 
stratum on being exposed to the atmosphere, and the destruction 
of the colloidal humus complexes, which is partly accomplished 
by the action of bacteria, — any one or all of these factors may 
liberate the iron, alumina, magnesia, and others. These may 
form under certain conditions either nodules or concretions in the 
soil, or in some cases a continuous layer of considerable thickness. 
The solid aggregations vary widely in composition, in amount of 
fine-grained organic matter and in degree of cementation. Hence 
much importance should be attached to the character and color of 
peaty waters, the amount of suspended material which they con- 



38 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

tain, to the direction of their transport and movement as percolating 
ground waters, and to the place of ulterior evaporation of these 
waters, e. i, the precipitation of their salts. It is needless to add 
that to the form of the surface drainage and the underdrainage 
system and to the effects of irrigation channels on the horizontal, 
vertical or lateral movement of such ground waters on peat land 
the greatest of care should be given. 

Observations on peat lands with a water level 30 to 40 inches 
below the surface and which are not exposed to floods show that 
evaporation is relatively active during the summer season. This 
renders the surface soil when under cultivation liable to saline 
incrustations due to salt constituents of various kinds in solution 
drawn from the deeper beds. The action is strongly marked in 
ditches on peat lands with a water table fluctuating during the 
seasons for plant growth. 

In deep and broad peat basins the imbibition and transport of 
soil waters is on the whole horizontal and dependent for its position 
upon those strata of peat materials whose composition and proper- 
ties favor a lateral movement. This is readily observed in open 
ditches with peaty strata which permit underground water drainage 
along the cleavage lines and (upon estuarine peat land) which 
contain beds of diatomaceous earth or heavy layers of ash owing 
to severe and extensive clearing fires. The ash is chalk-like in 
color at the inner portions of the peat basin due to the removal of 
iron compounds to which the yellow and red ash at the marginal 
areas normally owes its color. 

In shallow peat lands and those of small size and depth the 
transport of ground waters appears to be vertical and lateral. 
During floods, however, the abundance of water reduces the move- 
ment of the saline constituents and from the appearance of the 
characteristically bleached sands underlying the peat lands it may 
be concluded that the transport is then lateral and downward 
where under-drainage is free. 

We are lacking data showing the increase in evaporation and 
vertical salt deposition due to specific crops, such as corn, potato, 
certain truck crops, and grasses for hay or pasture, but there is 
little doubt that onion would show an excess. 

Fogs and other forms of humidity should be closely observed 



MASSACHUSETTS PEAT LANDS 39 

since it may be regarded as probable that a considerably larger 
number of days with a water vapor blanket reducing low tempera- 
ture in the critical frosty days of the growing period may result 
from the enhanced evaporation conditions consequent to the 
increase in cultivation. This may make the relative humidity 
conditions and therefore the duration of the growing period for 
crops more advantageous in certain localities with peat lands of 
greater depth of materials. But this question and others connected 
more chiefly with physiological effects of field conditions on crop 
plants demand a more thorough study than has been at present 
accorded to peat investigations. 

III. The geological and topographic factors. 

Owing to the solvent action of disintegrating masses of vegetable 
material a consideration of the underlying rocks and soils has 
therefore great importance practically as well as theoretically, 
because they are in many respects the causes of the more primary 
differences between marly alkaline to neutral peat lands and ferru- 
ginous and acid peat lands; they determine also in a great measure 
the degree of disintegration, leaching, and weathering of peat, and 
they condition the particular drainage measure, the choice of the 
crop system, and the cultural methods best suited to their respec- 
tive peat materials. 

According to the relief of the land Massachusetts may be divided 
into a number of physiographic provinces, each marked by its own 
characteristic topography and geologic belts. 

In the western section of the state are the series of mountainous 
ridges of rugged topography, the rocks of which consist of strongly 
folded and faulted quartzites, limestones, slates, schists, etc., 
mostly of Paleozoic age. Of primary consideration is the fact that 
in the Berkshire Valley the peat lands of morainal lacustrine and 
of valley topography are generally underlaid by marl and similar 
calcareous substances. 

The Connecticut Valley is marked in general by the presence of 
soft reddish Triassic sandstones and shales, with an occasional 
trap ridge. East of it in the highlands occurs a belt of folded 
sedimentary and metamorphic rocks and further eastward, grad- 
ually sloping toward the coast, is a broad crystalline belt consisting 
largely of metamorphic and igneous rocks, such as granites, mi- 



40 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

caceous gneisses and others, both basic and acid, but including 
many altered sedimentary beds. In the vicinity of Boston and 
southward there are considerable areas of carboniferous sandstones, 
conglomerates, and slates. 

The mantle of drift or till left by the glaciers masks and obscures 
the pre-glacial peneplain. The most characteristic forms of the 
glacial soils are the rounded hills of unmodified material known as 
drumlins, which show a tendency to linear grouping. The peat 
lands in their depressions are conditioned in the main by springs; 
but unlike those located along fault lines and issuing from rock 
crevices, the springs are intermittent and show their connection 
with the seasonal rainfall. 

Another form of glacial drift are the plains of stratified sand 
which appear to be chiefly deltas and outwash aprons formed by 
streams during the successive stages of lowering of ancient glacial 
lakes. These sand plains may be regarded as the natural reservoirs 
of characteristically soft water, with a uniformly shallow water 
table. Peat lands occupying depressions in the stratified drift are 
well exemplified by the "Great Cedar Swamps," so abundant tn 
the southeastern portion of the state. The great extent and the 
continuity of these sand plains has been one of the chief causes 
in the obstruction of former drainage channels and in the formation 
of those lake and river peat lands which today constitute the main 
peat resource of the state. 

The till of the upland adjoining peat land is arenaceous, porous 
in texture, and supplemented with occasional interbedded and 
superficial layers of washed material. It readily absorbs the 
greater portion of the rainfall and is quite susceptible to the " pod- 
soling" process mentioned above. Differences in this feature may 
be accounted for in part by the variations in the surface organic 
materials, in the texture and character of sub-surface mineral soils, 
and in the season's rainfall from year to year. 

The till underlying the peat lands is prevailingly well compacted 
and probably is the principal source of supply as well as the factor 
determining the nature of the ground waters. 

Beds of clay underneath peat lands are not numerous; they are 
found deposited at relatively low levels of elevation, and to some 
extent under the salt marshes and in the fresh water peat lands 
near the coast. 



MASSACHUSETTS PEAT LANDS 41 

The rock formations and soils in the respective water sheds of 
the state and at the head of the main rivers arising there, are 
probably of no less importance in supplying the dominant mineral 
constituents of springs and groundwaters than the soils underlying 
the peat lands in the coastal plain section. The variations in 
organic materials of estuarine peat lands and the amounts of their 
inorganic. impurities depend undoubtedly much upon the individual 
streams, their varying currents, flooding power, and the specific 
nature of the organic and mineral constituents carried in suspension. 
Consequently analytical work would naturally be of deep interest 
to. those favoring the chemical side of the question in its relation 
to problems of fertilizer requirement in the improvement of peat 
lands. 

However, it is still an open question whether the conditions are 
ripe for the closer chemical investigation which many soil students 
desire, except in those more extreme and primary distinctions 
between calcareous and ferruginous peat lands. Whether the 
chemical method would yield the results in any way as definitely 
correlated with the tilling qualities of peat lands and their 
agricultural or industrial value, as for example, ecological or bac- 
teriological investigations, is a problem which warrants further 
investigation. 

The main questions from the geological standpoint, which seem 
to require careful consideration are 

(1) the character and the condition of the underlying rocks and 
mineral soils; 

(2) the variations in and the nature of the ground waters at the 
various levels of the peat mass; 

(3) the direction and the distribution of the salts during trans- 
port, especially along the lines of cleavage in the stratal ground 
water drainage, and their place of deposition. 

IV. Some of the uses of Massachusetts peat lands. 

There is today generally a greater interest in and a better appre- 
ciation of the advantages which peat land has over soils of other 
kinds in regard to cost of labor, ease of tillage, range, yield, and 
market of crops. Some of the factors for which the farmer is 
personally responsible and on which the permanent improvement 
of these soils largely depends, have been described elsewhere 



42 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

(Journ. Amer. Peat Soc. 9, 10-21, 1915). There is need of empha- 
sizing in this connection that much consideration should be given 
to the dangers from over-drainage and improper cultural methods. 

As to fertilizer, either potash, principally the basic form, or 
manure should be used to begin the improvement of peat lands, 
but liming may or may not be advisable. The acidity of certain 
peat materials does not necessarily decrease their productivity. 
The only correct means, however, of determining the fertilizer 
requirements on peat land of specifically different peat materials 
consists in making actual growing tests and studying the reactions 
and the yields obtained. The use of manure is to be highly recom- 
mended, especially upon the heavy, compact phases of peat, which 
should receive the coarser manures. The value of fibrous peat 
material as a stable litter or bedding in stock and in dairy farming 
can hardly be over-estimated. Peat materials are known to 
absorb not only large quantities of water or of solutes but gaseous 
products as well. Owing to their great absorptive power peat 
materials are used as a deodorizer and as an efficient absorbent for 
gaseous ammonia formed from the decay of manure, which would 
otherwise escape into the air and be lost. 

There is little doubt that the agricultural development of suitably 
prepared peat lands in Massachusetts would prove to be profitable. 
The cultivation of grasses and certain clovers for hay and pasture 
for a few years will probably be the safest operation. The pasture 
problem has been in the main neglected and hence it seems that it 
should be relatively advantageous to double the product. More- 
over, the decrease in the number of head of livestock has been very 
great in all countries of late and a strong demand for both animals 
and their food is making itself felt. 

But the peat lands of Massachusetts may well be utilized for 
other types of farming. Every effort should be made to eliminate 
this waste of peat land resources and to increase the food products 
of the state. Corn, preferably for silage purposes, potato, oats, 
rye, and clovers with grasses may be grown; they should be ro- 
tated every few years. Root crops to supplement pasture and used 
as succulent feed for stock in fall and winter on the farm would 
not only improve the plowed layer, but probably give fairly high 
yields. They should follow cereals such as rye, oats, millet, and 



MASSACHUSETTS PEAT LANDS 43 

others. This list is not a large one, but that is mainly due to the 
fact that carefully conducted field trials to serve as practical 
demonstrations are quite essential in a state with peat lands differ- 
ing in field conditions. Detailed investigations on crops with 
qualities of resistance, of rapidity in growth and maturity, capacity 
to yield suitable variations and related to specific peat materials 
and field conditions are still lacking from which to obtain reliable 
information. No less important is the greater utilization of 
peat lands for certain ornamental trees and shrubs and for much 
of the nursery stock and also for many bulb plants which are now 
imported from other countries with the dangers of disease infection. 
The peat lands of Massachusetts certainly compare favorably 
with those which have been so successfully utilized in Sweden, 
Holland, Germany, and other countries of northern Europe. 

The use of peat materials for industrial purposes is constantly 
increasing; their place and role as stock food ingredient; their 
value as fertilizer dilutent or filler both with and without previous 
treatment or mixture with inorganic salts; their effectiveness as 
a carrier of bacterial inoculations; as fiber for surgical dressings, 
for special grades of paper, for carpets or for packing material ; their 
value as granular, compressed or powdered peat; in the manu- 
facture of producer gas and heating devices; the use of sapropel 
and ericoid materials for the distillation of tar and related products, 
for purposes of extraction of crude oil, ammonium sulfate, paraffin, 
wax or fuel gases ; their effectiveness for hygienic and sanitary pur- 
poses such as peat baths and mud baths; for these and other uses 
peat materials are assuming considerable prominence commer- 
cially (see Bull. 16: Chapter IV, Ohio Geological Survey, 1912). It 
involves a knowledge of the peat materials and the removal and de- 
struction of specifically suitable beds or strata, and therefore should 
be resorted to only in exceptional cases after detailed technical 
information has been secured. Of fundamental significance is the 
method of collecting the materials ; this should not be done without 
reference to the fact that the layers of peat materials in a deposit 
are different in origin, composition, and properties, and in not a 
few instances may be entirely unsuitable for the specific uses 
referred to above. The economic utilization of peat materials, by 
far much more so than their agricultural usage, must base itself 



44 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

upon a knowledge of the different kinds of peat materials and the 
factors in the field which conditioned their accumulation and 
character; hence their technical use should be treated as a rather 
highly specialized form of business, if the best financial results 
are to be obtained. 

Considerable attention has been drawn of late to statements 
that an important and valuable effect of peat is in its value as a 
plant food, — i. e., in the presence of certain "accessory" organic 
food substances derived from bacterized peat material; very small 
amounts of it are thought to .be sufficient to satisfy the needs of 
growing plants. This subject has been under investigation in 
Germany and in England. The action of these compounds, as yet 
undetermined chemically, is reported to have been variable. This 
no doubt may be due to the difference in character and in the 
conditions of the peat materials used in relation to the efficiency 
and the duration of action of beneficial micro-organisms. To 
bacteriologists the action of bacteria and fungi in converting 
certain organic and inorganic substances into a soluble form and to 
bind free atmospheric nitrogen is not a new problem. It is rather 
in the technical handicap of using peat materials as carriers which 
are free from objectionable qualities and in the development of 
satisfactory methods to maintain an active state of condition in 
the organisms yielding the requisite products. 

If Massachusetts continues to forge to the front as she has done 
in her cranberry industry it will be through a recognition of the 
differences existing in field conditions of peat lands and in peat 
materials affected by them. This work may take much effort, 
but it can be accomplished through the state agencies now at work. 



Conclusion. 

The reconnaisance work on Massachusetts peat lands leads to 
the following general conclusions: 

1. The inequality in the character of peat lands encountered 
and in the strata of their materials may render a more detailed 
study one of considerable advantage in their agricultural or in- 
dustrial utilization and requirements. 



MASSACHUSETTS PEAT LANDS 45 

2. It would be of special advantage should specific peat mate- 
rials and field conditions be kept under observation where under- 
drainage is intended and where changes are being made in the 
groundwater table, so that the agricultural development may 
correspond with the existing field conditions and with the ensuing 
changes in the character of the peat materials. 

3. Information concerning the seasonal variations in the 
water table, the nature of the salt constituents, and the circum- 
stances in the field conditions which lead to the augmentation or 
diminution of soluble constituents is of prime importance, the 
effect of any accumulation of iron compounds especially requiring 
attention in certain cases. 

4. The relation of cropping system to the several kinds of peat 
lands if ignored would be to the disadvantage of the real agricul- 
tural value of certain peat lands. Field trials are the more correct 
means under the existing conditions on the peat lands to determine 
the choice of crop varieties, seeding mixtures, etc., and the cultural 
practices to be followed. 



y 



HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS WE SHOULD GROW. 
By Prof. Arno H. Nehrling, Amherst, Mass. 



Delivered before the Society, with stereopticon illustrations, 
February 3, 1917. 



I am happy to have an opportunity to address you on the sub- 
ject of "Perennials we should grow" because it is a group of plants 
in which I am especially interested. For the last three years I 
have been devoting a great deal of time to the study of perennials 
and I do not think I have ever worked with a more interesting 
group of plants, and I wish to say at the outset, that herbaceous 
perennials unquestionably deserve the popularity which they are 
enjoying at the present time. 

Wnen we think of an ideal perennial garden we usually include 
the spring-flowering bulbs. Can you imagine our gardens without 
the dainty Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), followed by clumps of 
Crocus (Crocus versicolor), and the Showy Squill (Scilla sibirica) 
which open their flowers even before the snow has entirely dis- 
appeared? After these have passed away come constant changes 
in a well arranged perennial border every week. In fact, every 
day will bring forth something new to interest and delight the eye 
of the flower lover. Only severe freezing weather will put an end 
to such persistent late-blooming sorts as hardy Chrysanthemums, 
Japanese Anemones, New England Asters, Gaillardias, Aconitums, 
etc. 

It is not my purpose today to treat the subject in a general way, 
because so much has been said and written of late concerning the 
management, planting, and care of herbaceous borders. I will be 
more specific and deal only with the perennials we should grow in 
our gardens. Before I take up the actual materials, however, let 
us trace briefly the evolution of gardening in this country from the 
time the Pilgrim Fathers landed on the bleak, barren shores of New 

47 



48 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

England, bringing with them a few seeds of garden pinks, and other 
old-fashioned garden flowers, to the present day. 

When we study the history of gardening in America we find that 
many changes have been brought about from time to time, es- 
pecially in the types of plants used in beds and borders for orna- 
mental purposes. These changes might be termed fashions in 
plants. The most important change occurred with the introduc- 
tion of the so-called bedding plants at the time of the Centennial 
Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876. These showy plants appealed 
strongly to the public and from that time on the so-called old 
fashioned flowers which our grandmothers had been growing with 
good results for years and years, came into disfavor with the 
gardener, especially the home gardener. Even twenty years ago 
there were few borders outside of those planted by professional 
gardeners on private estates and in public parks. 

With the adoption of the naturalistic style of landscape gardening 
a decided change occurred not only in the type of materials used, 
but also in the manner of planting, and the last ten years has seen 
a growing interest in the so-called old-fashioned hardy plants 
which are technically known as hardy herbaceous perennials, and 
never have they been so highly esteemed as they are at the present 
time. Everyone who is fortunate enough to have even a small 
garden should devote at least part of it to hardy plants. 

The reasons for this popularity are obvious. First of all, they 
are plants that live from year to year. Although the tops die off 
at the end of the growing season, new growths come from parts 
underground the following season. This of course gives the garden 
a feeling of permanency and by selecting the proper varieties the 
disappearing flowers will be continuously replaced by new ones. 
The colors of the varieties must be carefully studied as the color 
scheme is one of the primary features of the garden. The season 
of flowering must also be studied in order that the plants may be 
arranged so as to avoid clashes in color and so as to have an equality 
of flowers over the entire season. Even though the border is 
planned with utmost care, it is not always possible to have the 
entire border a mass of color throughout the season, and as already 
stated, in planning the perennial border a few clumps of spring- 
flowering bulbs such as Snowdrops, Scillas, etc., and masses of 



HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS WE SHOULD GROW 49 

annuals should be added. Annuals have a particular charm be- 
cause quick results may be obtained with them, and although they 
are secondary in a border, they are nevertheless of vital importance 
in making a successful garden. 

Another reason for the popularity of perennials at the present 
time is because of the fact that great improvements have been 
brought about by our nurserymen and plant hybridizers. We 
have much finer and many more varieties for planting than had 
our predecessors. It is only when a comparison is made between 
Delphinium, Paeony, Phlox, Asters, etc. of today with those in 
general cultivation ten or fifteen years ago that one realizes the 
extraordinary improvements that have been made. 

Summing up the reasons for the increasing interest that has 
been taken in the cultivation of hardy herbaceous perennials the 
past few years, we must not overlook the fact that they are planted 
for effects to cover a period of years. Then too, there is no group 
of plants more adaptable to varied conditions of soil and location. 
While the majority of species prefer a good deep soil and an open 
position, there are a number which succeed under partially shaded 
conditions, and soil heavy and light, or moist and dry. Although 
they thrive best in the flower garden proper, there are a few which 
will grow better planted in the rockery, shrubbery border, or the 
wild garden. I might add at this point that men who are familiar 
with the construction of gardens have made the statement that the 
year 1916 went down in the history of gardening as the year of the 
the true beginning of rock gardening in this country. The inter- 
est in this type of gardening was stimulated to some extent by the 
fine displays of rock garden plants at the exhibitions throughout 
the land the past season. 

Professional gardeners and amateurs have long ago come to the 
conclusion that the perennial border has passed the experimental 
stage and is now an important feature in every modern flower 
garden. From a well-planned garden or border is derived a feeling 
of quiet and rest that no amount of showy bedding plants such as 
red Geraniums, yellow Coleus, or Scarlet Sage can give us. By 
making the proper selection, any garden can be made attractive 
from early spring until fall. 

Coming to the species and varieties we should grow, we now 



50 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

have a splendid list from which to make selections. Many of our 
progressive firms have gone into the culture of perennials on a 
large scale. The Palisades Nurseries, Sparkill, N. Y., list over a 
thousand species and varieties. Henry A. Dreer, Philadelphia, 
R. & J. Farquhar, Boston, Bertram Farr, Wyomissing, Pa., A. N. 
Pierson, Cromwell, Conn., Knight & Struck, New York City, and 
many other progressive florists and seedsmen offer large collections. 
However, the number of species and varieties does not compare 
with the number grown on the other side of the water where this 
group of plants has always received a great deal of attention. 
Mr. M. Free, the superintendent of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden 
in an article in the Florists' Exchange, March 26th, 1916, makes 
the following statement with reference to the number of species in 
cultivation in this country, compared to the number used in England. 

" It must be generally admitted that our perennial borders, with 
some few exceptions, are characterized by a great lack of variety 
in the plant material used. Especially is this noticeable when 
comparisons are made with the hardy flower borders of several 
European countries where the culture of herbaceous plants in 
borders and rock gardens has assumed enormous proportions. In 
the Royal Gardens, Kew, over 8000 species and varieties of her- 
baceous plants are grown, and it is no uncommon thing to see 
catalogs published by nurserymen containing over 2000 varieties. 
While not advocating for an instant the growing of plants simply 
for the sake of having a large collection, it must be conceded that 
when a nurseryman catalogs 2000 hardy plants, there must be a 
number of really meritorious subjects which are not grown in our 
borders, and which are not to be found in the lists published by the 
majority of American firms dealing in hardy plants. 

"The demand for, and importance of, hardy perennials is in- 
creasing by leaps and bounds. People are getting tired of the 
monotony and expense of formal bedding and demand a return to 
the old-fashioned perennial border which, when properly con- 
structed, provides plants in bloom, of some kind or other, from 
April to November. It is up to the nurserymen therefore, to see 
that this demand is supplied. The man who is able to do this is 
the one likeliest to reap the largest profits. We will have to break 
away from the stereotyped list of plants that everyone who grows 



HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS WE SHOULD GROW 51 

herbaceous plants already has in his possession and launch out in 
introducing new plants. Novelties are a necessity, not only from 
the interest they generate, but from the point of view of the matter 
of hard cash involved." 

The English firms who specialize in hardy plants realize the 
important psychological fact that people are always seeking some- 
thing new, and strenuous efforts are constantly being made to 
add new plants to their collections. The majority of the new sorts 
are obtained by cross-breeding standard varieties. Others obtain 
their novelties by sending expeditions for the purpose of collecting 
new plants in their native habitats. 

Our own Mr. Wilson has brought to this country a large collec- 
tion of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, among the latter 
being Liliums, Buddleia variabilis, Aconitum Wilsoni, Anemone 
hupehemis, Artemisia lactiflora, etc. 

Even though our brothers across the water are offering a larger 
number of species in their catalogs, we have at the present time a 
vast amount of material to choose from. The range of color in 
these plants covers a wide range of tones. Mrs. Francis King in 
her work on "The Weil-Considered Garden" says, "Never before 
were seen pinks of such richness, such deep velvet-like violets, 
delicate buffs and salmons, actual blues, vivid orange tones, and 
pale beautiful lavenders." Through the magic of the hybridizers 
we are today without excuse for ugliness in the garden. 

The question of color, if good effects are to be obtained, is an 
important one, and should be considered seriously when materials 
are being selected. The average descriptive seed or bulb list is 
not always as accurate as it might be. We have as yet no color 
standard for garden flowers. Mrs. Sedgwick in "The Garden 
Month by Month," provides a chart which is of great value in the 
selection of plants for a perennial garden. It is rather difficult to 
make definite recommendations regarding color selection because 
of the likes and dislikes of the individual. Most of us have preju- 
dices against a certain color and disregard it completely when 
selecting material. This same color, when judiciously used with 
correlated tones, may have been transmuted into a perfect picture. 
The successful gardener must also be somewhat of an artist and 
have a keen eye for color effect, whether the scheme is one of 
contrasts or a gradual verging from one shade to another. 



52 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

On some of our larger estates entire gardens or portions of a 
garden are devoted to plants of one color, such as blue, red, or white. 
The blue garden has been especially popular of late. 

Again, coming back to the actual problem of the herbaceous 
perennials we should grow, let me say that in a list of 100 of the 
best sorts, few people agree as to which actually are the best sub- 
jects for a particular purpose. The personal element will again be 
an important factor in making a choice. 

My recommendations will be based on tests which have been 
made the past three seasons in the perennial garden at the Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College. Our collection, although far from 
being complete, contains at the present time over 500 different 
species and varieties. They are planted in beds 12 X 50 feet 
separated by grass walks, one row of a variety with six plants 
in a row. This garden has not been planted from the standpoint 
of artistic effects, but principally for study, all plants being pro- 
vided with zinc labels. 

I will not weary you with a list of all the meritorious hardy 
plants, but select only those which are the most useful among those 
we should grow. The writer has endeavored to put aside his own 
likes and dislikes, and included only the more satisfactory forms. 
There are many more sorts with strong claims of inclusion, but as 
our time is limited, the exclusion of many good things is inevitable. 

The plants I will mention have been placed in their approximate 
order of flowering and there will of course be cases of overlapping 
throughout the season. In the period allotted to me, it will of 
course be impossible for me to mention the specific use of each form, 
however my slides will, I hope, illustrate these points to some extent. 

I might classify the plants I will mention and state definitely 
for what position in the garden they are most satisfactory; however, 
since this is impossible in a short period, I have arranged the plants 
as to the season of flowering, height, and color of the flowers. 

A collection could be selected to good advantage from the follow- 
ing list: 

April-Mat 



Name 


Color 


Height 


Arabis albida 


White 


6-8" 


Alyssum saxatile compactum 


Yellow 


9-18" 



HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS WE SHOULD GROW 



53 



Name 


Color 


Height 


Phlox subulata 


Pink 


6" 


Anemone Pulsatilla 


Light blue 


9" 


Veronica gentianoides 


Blue 


1-2' 


May- 


-June 




Doronicum platagineum excelsum 


Yellow 


li-2' 


Aquilegia caerulea 


Light blue and white 


H-2' 


" glandulosa 


Blue and white 


v 


" chrysantha 


Yellow 


2-3' 


canadensis 


Scarlet and yellow 


"|i r 


Dicentra spectabilis 


Rose 


2' 


Iris germanica vars. 


Various 


2-3' 


Dianthus deltoides 


Deep pink 


9" 


Pyrethrum hybridum 


Various 


l|-2' 


Lychnis viscaria splendens 


Pink 


i-i*' 


Veronica amethystina 


Deep blue 


i-ir 


Aster alpinus 


Purple 


9" 


JUNE- 


-July 




Papaver orientale 


Scarlet 


2-3' 


Paeonia 


Various 


3' 


Lupinus polyphyllus Moerheimi 


Pink 


3' 


Dianthus plumarius "Her Majesty' 1 


White 


1' 


Hemerocallis flava 


Yellow 


3' 


Polemonium Richardsoni 


Blue 


1i' 


Helenium Hoopesii 


Yellow 


3' 


Delphinium hybridum 


Blue 


4-5' 


belladonna 


Pale blue 


4-5' 


Hemerocallis Dumortieri 


Yellow 


W 


Baptisia australis 


Dark blue 


3' 


Pentstemon laevigatus digitalis 


Lilac white 


2|'-3' 


Dictamnus albus 


White 


2-3' 


Aconitum Napellus 


Deep blue 


2¥ 


Anthemis tinctoria Kelwayi 


Yellow 


3' 


Anchusa italica Dropmore 


Blue 


4-5' 


" Opal 


Light blue 


4' 


Campanula persicifolia 


Blue 


2-4' 


Coreopsis lanceolata 


Yellow 


2-2|' 


Campanula carpatica 


Blue 


9" 


Oenothera missouriensis 


Yellow 


1' 


fruticosa 


Deep yellow 


2-3' 


Heuchera sanguinea 


Red 


Ml' 


Veronica incana 


Blue 


i-ir 



54 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Name 


Color 


Heigh 


Iris laevigata (Kaempferi) 


Various 


2-3' 


Spiraea Aruncus 


White 


3' 


Silene orientalis 


Pink 


1-1*' 


Polemonium caeruleum 


Blue 


2-3' 


July-August 




Hemerocallis aurantiaca major 


Orange 


3' 


Delphinium grandiflorum 


Blue 


2¥ 


Armeria maritima splendens 


Rose 


1' 


Campanula latifolia macrantha 


Purple 


3' 


C. glomerata dahurica 


Purple 


2' 


Gypsophila paniculata 


White 


•^2 


Aster amellus bessarabicus 


Blue 


2' 


Heliopsis laevis Pitcheriana 


Yellow 


3' 


Lilium tigrinum splendens 


Orange 


4' 


Lysimachia clethroides 


White 


2¥ 


Pentstemon barbatus Torreyi 


Orange scarlet 


4' 


Geum chiloense "Mrs. Bradshaw " 


Crimson 


1 2 


Gaillardia aristata 


Yellow and red 


2' 


Monarda didyma 


Bright red 


3' 


Physostegia virginiana 


Rose purple 


3-4' 


Platycodon grandiflora Mariesii 


Blue 


J-2 


Potentilla hybrida "Miss Willmott" 


Cerise 


i¥ 


Asclepias tuberosa 


Orange 


2¥ 


Stokesia cyanea 


Blue 


1' 


Centaurea montana 


Purple 


W 


Saponaria officinalis 


Pink 


i-U' 


Lythrum salicaria roseum superbum 


Pink 


4-6' 


Astilbe Davidii 


Deep pink 


2' 


Buddleia variabilis magnifica 


Lilac 


3-5' 


Lepachys pinnata 


Yellow 


3-4' 


Phlox glaberrima suffruticosa, var. Miss 






Lingard 


White 


2-3' 


Sidalcea Candida 


White 


2-3' 


Centaurea macrocephala 


Yellow 


3' 


Galegia bicolor Hartlandi 


Pale lavender 


3' 



August-September 



Phlox paniculata vars. Various 2-3' 

Scabiosa caucasica Pale blue 1¥ 

Sedum spectabile roseum Rose 1¥ 

Chrysanthemum maximum King Edw. VII White l¥ 

Rudbeckia speciosa Orange yellow 2' 



HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS WE SHOULD GROW 



55 



Name 
Funkia subcordata grandiflora 
Rudbeckia sub-tomentosa 
Veronica longifolia sub-sessilis 
Helenium autumnale superbum 
Helenium "Riverton Gem" 
Echinacea purpurea 
Liatris pycnostachya 
Rudbeckia laciniata fl. pi. 
Hibiscus moscheutos varieties 
Achillea ptarmica "Perry's White" 
Aconitum autumnale 
Helianthus multiflorus fl. pi. 
Lobelia cardinalis 
" syphititica 



September-October 



Solidago rigida 

Salvia azurea grandiflora 

Aconitum Fischeri 

Aster novae-angliae rosea 

Boltonia latisquama 

Aster novae-belgii "Perry's Pink" 

Aster tataricus 

Anemone japonica 

Aster turbinellus 



Color 


Heigh. 


White 


1±' 

1 2 


Yellow 


4' 


Deep blue 


w 


Yellow 


4-5' 


Dark red 


3' 


Reddish purple 


3-4' 


Purple 


3-4' 


Yellow 


5-7' 


Various 


4-6' 


White 


• L 2 


Blue 


3' 


Yellow 


4' 


Red 


2f-3' 


Blue 


3-3' 


3BER 

Yellow 


31' 


Pale blue 


3-4' 


Blue 


2-3' 


Rose 


5-6' 


White 


4-5' 


Deep pink 


3-3|' 


Purple 


5-6' 


White 


2-3' 


Light blue 


3' 



RECENT TROUBLES WITH OUR FOREST TREES. 
By Frank W. Rane, State Forester of Massachusetts. 



Delivered before the Society, with stereopticon illustrations, 
February 10, 1917. 



The John Lewis Russell Lecture. 



We are inclined to think that originally, before our forefathers 
discovered these shores, America was a country largely covered 
with magnificent forests which had stood unmolested for centuries 
upon centuries and were absolutely free from all sorts of depreda- 
tions particularly insects and diseases. These conditions appar- 
ently prevailed also throughout our pioneer days in every section 
of the country, and it is only within recent years that our real 
forest and tree troubles have come upon us. 

As long as the normal conditions prevailed the balance of nature 
was preserved and there was little trouble, but with so-called 
development through the agency of man, complicated conditions 
have arisen. We have not only been cleaning up forests and utiliz- 
ing the land for agriculture, which is a legitimate undertaking, 
but we have been recklessly allowing indifference as to future 
conditions until today we are beginning to reap the results. In the 
struggle for existence of all kinds of vegetation, particularly forest 
trees which are trying to exist in every condition possible excepting 
their normal environment, is it any w r onder that they have become 
susceptible to all kinds of troubles? 

Forest fires alone have been allowed to run rampant over our 
slashings and forest tracts, laying waste great expanses of territory 
and destroying the leaf mould and reservoirs of plant food which, 
had they been preserved, might have given growth to sufficient 
forests in the future to supply a growing nation with all the forest 
products it could possibly use. With the changing environment of 

57 



58 „ MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

forests and trees, likewise has come the unbalanced conditions of 
animal, bird, fish, and insect life, as well as the more favorable 
conditions for the development of various possible plant diseases. 

It is evident to the student of plant life that the above named 
conditions are sufficient to lead us to expect in time troubles for our 
forest trees, but when to this condition we add the innumerable 
diseases of plants and insects that have been imported from foreign 
countries, the whole situation becomes indeed complicated. It 
naturally follows that in the older sections of the nation like New 
England in particular, we are among the first to be affected. Here 
conditions have apparently reached the climax. Realizing that 
our future depends upon a better and more constructive agriculture 
and forestry our people in Massachusetts at least are awaking to a 
realization of the conditions which confront them. 

We have been steadily but surely perfecting a state forest policy 
for the past ten years -and while the results are not as apparent to 
the casual observer as we wish they were, nevertheless, like the boy 
who was flying his kite above the clouds, although he could not see 
it, he knew it was there by its pull, so in the forestry work the pull 
is there in Massachusetts and now and then we have the pleasure 
of seeing results. Every ten years we predict will revolutionize our 
former conditions. What Germany has accomplished in centuries 
from a wise forest policy we should be able to accomplish in Massa- 
chusetts in a far less time. May we not all have an active part in 
such a laudable undertaking? 

In forest troubles we include a very large number of depredations, 
the more important of which are damage to forests from fire, 
disease, insects, wind, and animals. 

In a comparatively new country like ours where practically no 
attention was given to future conditions, and where due considera- 
tion of them is gained only by severe experience, we awaken to find 
many disastrous things have been done which now must be rectified. 
The problems now are many and complicated, and they could have 
been avoided with comparatively little effort, if we had had our 
present knowledge. 

In forest troubles coming from insects and diseases we are finding, 
as was the case in the fruit-growing industry, our greater troubles 
come from introduced or so-called foreign insects and diseases 



RECENT TROUBLES WITH OUR FOREST TREES 59 

brought to us usually on imported stock. Steps have been taken 
to regulate future importation through careful inspections and 
powers of restriction, but this is of little use in overcoming and 
neutralizing the depredations of those already established. It is 
these insects and diseases that are causing us a great amount of 
trouble. To cope with these unwelcome guests has proven in many 
cases extremely troublesome and expensive. 

The writer has had much experience with forest depredations 
and the results secured through a careful study of utilization as a 
practical aid in the solution of a few of our forest troubles in Massa- 
chusetts seem very encouraging. This probably explains why the 
secretary of this society has asked the writer to discuss at this 
time recent troubles with our forest trees. I shall take up first 
the latest developments in the work of suppression of the gypsy 
and brown-tail moths in Massachusetts, and, second, the present 
status of the chestnut blight and the blister rust diseases of more 
recent years, and allude more briefly to other troubles. 

In order to succeed in aiding the woodland owner in our state in 
his fight against the invasion of his forest growth by pests, a very 
careful and complete survey of the whole question of markets, 
materials, labor costs, cost of teaming, transportation charges, 
milling expenses, supervision, etc., was made in order to utilize all 
dormant capital in forests where possible, which otherwise would be 
almost a total loss. This study has proved worth the effort as not 
only have we been able to make the sale of forest products self- 
supporting, but in many cases a substantial net revenue has been 
secured. 

For a number of years the gypsy and brown-tail moth work was 
confined largely to shade-trees and orchards, and the work of com- 
bating and suppressing these insects was directed towards over- 
coming the great loss following their -ravages measured largely in 
aesthetic values. 

As was inevitable, although the very best brains of the nation, 
assisted by experts from abroad, were focused upon the suppression 
of these insects, the spread continued throughout the forests of the 
eastern part of the state. As these insects became intrenched in 
our woodlands, which are composed of a great variety ranging from 
valueless scrub and brush growth to superior stands, the same 



60 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

methods practiced upon preservation of trees in cities and towns 
were prohibitive on account of the great expense entailed. It was 
found that to spray an acre of woodland of average conditions, 
with arsenate of lead for example, would cost forty dollars, while 
the assessed value of the whole property might not average that 
amount. 

Anticipating these conditions the Massachusetts State Forester 
set at work to meet the situation, and in a year's time evolved a 
spraying machine that revolutionized all previous methods. This 
machine was constructed of parts made of bronze metal instead of 
cast iron and perfected in such a way as to obtain efficiency in 
spraying and at the same reduce the expense of operation. The 
result of this improvement in our spraying equipment was to lower 
the comparative cost of woodland spraying from forty to six dollars 
per acre. In accomplishing this result the Forester desires to 
acknowledge the assistance of L. H. Worthley and Melvin Guptill. 
The former was an assistant in the department, in charge of moth 
work, and the latter was responsible for executing the engineering 
work. This powerful machine, making possible the spraying of 
tall trees without climbing, is economical of team and manual labor. 
No patents were ever applied for, and the results were given to the 
world. This machine has been in common use in Massachusetts 
and elsewhere, and aside from the natural improvements suggested 
from experience, and minor inventions each year, is the same 
machine. 

Other methods of moth suppression besides spraying have been 
used, such as introducing parasites, creosoting egg masses, etc., all 
of which are of value when used intelligently, but spraying is com- 
monly resorted to when immediate results are desired. During 
the past season the contract for arsenate of lead by the State For- 
ester was for seven hundred tons, and it is believed that one thou- 
sand tons may have been used in Massachusetts. 

As soon as the moths began to make inroads upon the forests we 
were confronted not only with improving and perfecting our spray- 
ing methods, but other economic methods suggested themselves. 
It was found to be a poor policy to spray good, bad, and indifferent 
trees alike. It naturally followed, therefore, that the undesirable 
ones were taken out, thus enabling the remaining trees to be sprayed 



RECENT TROUBLES WITH OUR FOREST TREES 61 

more economically. Herein lies a point to be emphasized, namely, 
forest utilization in connection with depredations. The chief 
purpose of the forester is to bring order and system out of chaos 
and meanwhile to determine ways and means of reducing our 
methods to scientific and economic practice. Upon studying the 
moth situation from the broad standpoint of future results when 
applied to forest conditions, the correct method of procedure was 
self-evident. As already indicated, it was an advantage to thin 
the forests for better spraying, and this practice naturally fell to 
the trained forester. 

As soon as modern forestry practices were applied and sylvicul- 
tural studies made, better results followed. It was soon demon- 
strated that certain trees were the natural food of the moth, while 
others were to a greater or lesser extent immune from their attack 
and particularly so when in so-called clear stands or in mixtures 
with other species equally undesirable as moth food. 

Taking advantage of these fundamentals and encouraged by 
actual results from the field experience, the so-called forestry 
methods of moth control have rapidly come to the front. During 
the past few years the State Forester has executed some large forest 
operations which have not only proven satisfactory in handling the 
moths, but from the economic standpoint have aided in establish- 
ing better forestry practices. The result of moth infestation in 
woodlands was to throw upon the market an oversuppty of dead and 
dying forest products. 

The forests of Eastern Massachusetts are the remains of a 
culled-out and cut-over country which has restocked itself without 
regulation or control. All sorts of forest types, species, mixtures, 
ages, and conditions are found. When the moths invade these 
woodlands they readily find enough of such species as they prefer 
to live upon until they are fairly grown and then, if compelled to 
do so, they finish their feeding period on whatever remains for 
them to devour. 

Taking advantage of this fact we have inaugurated the practice 
of taking out those species upon which the insects thrive best, 
their so-called natural food trees, with the result that the condi- 
tions are unhealthy for their propagation. The evergreens, the 
white pine in particular, one of our most valued species, we find is 



62 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

practically immune from the gypsy moth when grown in clear 
stands, for the reason that the very young caterpillars are unable 
to eat its needles. Hence if there are no deciduous trees present 
upon which they may feed during earlier stages of existence the 
pine is unmolested. Had this fact alone been known earlier in 
the moth suppressive work, great areas of white pine could have 
been saved. Our present treatment, therefore, with white pine 
stands is simply to thin out the growth upon which the gypsy moth 
naturally feeds, such as oak and gray birch, and the stand is there- 
after self-protecting. 

To work out a policy whereby all of the various conditions and 
methods could be made to harmonize and still accomplish results 
has been no small undertaking. The earlier moth work entailed 
great expense and this in itself rendered it unpopular. The con- 
stant aim at present is to conduct the work along self-supporting 
lines as far as possible. In forestry methods of moth control, 
estimates of costs are made and the forest products practically 
sold before the operation is begun. The State Forester and his 
assistants supervise the work, let contracts for the milling, chopping, 
hauling, etc., but the owner advances the funds for the undertaking. 

During the past three years approximately forty-five thousand 
cords of wood and between seven and eight million feet of lumber 
have been operated under this plan. Every time an operation of 
this sort is properly done it is not only an example of good moth 
suppressive work, but a beginning of better forestry practice; the 
territory for future infestation is lessened by just that much, and, 
best of all, it is self-supporting. Anyone can spend money in this 
work, but it takes men with experience and ability to break even, 
or, still better, return a profit to the owner. 

To find a market, or utilization alone, has been a perplexing 
problem. It has been necessary to actually create a market for 
our products. The wood-using industries had well established 
sources of supply and many ingenious plans were attempted before 
the trade could be interested. Three years ago, under very un- 
favorable markets, the work was made a success, and since the 
European War, of course, the only difficulty to surmount is that of 
getting efficient labor. The demand for forest products is far 
beyond our ability to supply. 



RECENT TROUBLES WITH OUR FOREST TREES 63 

Word has been sent out recently from the Massachusetts State 
Forester to all farmers and woodland owners through his local town 
officials and by means of the press, emphasizing the fact that this 
year offers exceptional opportunities for doing splendid con- 
structive forestry work. The price of coal is very high and should 
present conditions continue even more direful need for fuel may 
exist another season. At any rate everything is favorable for the 
better solving of our moth troubles and establishing permanent 
forestry conditions. 

This whole subject is discussed more fully in the publications of 
the Massachusetts State Forester which are available to those 
interested. I trust I have pointed out that utilization, particu- 
larly in our fight in the moth control work in Massachusetts, has 
been a very practical method of attack. This work will necessarily 
need to be continued for years. If the gypsy and brown-tail 
moths have done nothing else they have driven us to a stern realiza- 
tion that we need to practice more and better methods of forestry 
management if we are to get best results. 



. Chestnut Blight. 

The disease known as the Chestnut Blight has swept over the 
northeastern part of the United States and apparently stands 
ready to annihilate the chestnut tree in this section. It is common 
to Massachusetts generally, although in some sections of the state, 
conditions are worse than in others. As the disease is communi- 
cable from tree to tree, and is very virulent, the outcome is entirely 
problematic. 

As is the case with moth work, Massachusetts is giving all 
possible aid to chestnut tree owners in utilization of their products 
and at the same time is determining upon some forestry policy for 
the cut-over land. Where the chestnut is in mixture of pine, the 
pine is retained with the idea of supplanting the chestnut growth 
with this species. Chestnut poles, ties, and saw timber are all in 
demand at good prices; hence conditions are very favorable for 
owners to realize on this crop. 



64 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



White Pine Blister Rust. 

This disease has been introduced into this country on nursery 
stock of either the white pine or other five-leaved pines, or on the 
currants and gooseberries, the plants belonging to the genus Ribes. 
Unlike the chestnut bark disease it does not spread from pine to 
pine, but must alternate from pine to Ribes to complete its life 
cycle. 

The disease is common in Europe and was found in New York 
State on imported stock several years ago. At that time, upon the 
invitation of Mr. J. S. Whipple, then Forest, Fish, and Game 
Commissioner of New York, a conference of officials from various 
states and the government met at Albany and later in New York 
City, where the whole matter was fully discussed. The result of 
these meetings was to cease importing foreign white pine stock, 
rigidly inspect all future imports, grow our own stock in this coun- 
try, and practice a close inspection of all foreign stock already 
planted here with a view to destroying it should the disease appear. 

Recognizing the importance of making an inspection of the 
foreign stock already planted in Massachusetts, the State Forester 
had an official representative of the Bureau of Plant Industry of 
the United States Department of Agriculture visit our plantations 
and advise us regarding them in 1911. 

Last year the disease was found on two of our large private 
estates, one in the eastern or North Shore section, and the other 
in the western or popular Berkshire county. Upon finding these 
outbreaks interest was aroused in determining more fully the 
conditions generally. It was found that the currants proved a good 
index for determining the presence of the disease, and an inspection 
over a considerable portion of the state showed it to be generally 
infested. Believing it of sufficient importance to make even further 
investigation desirable in order to determine more fully to just what 
extent the disease may be found and to eradicate its evils, the state 
appropriated ten thousand dollars for use the past season. The 
United States Congress also appropriated fifty thousand dollars 
for similar use throughout the nation. 

Scouting investigations have continued throughout the year 



RECENT TROUBLES WITH OUR FOREST TREES 65 

and practically the whole State of Massachusetts has been covered. 
It is understood that the disease is found very generally distributed 
over the state, being, however, more commonly found in some sec- 
tions than in others. 

White pines are far less affected than are currants, but here and 
there the pines are found to be infected with the disease. In no 
case, as far as the writer is aware, is there an infection of sufficient 
magnitude to destroy a stand of white pine of any appreciable size. 
Here and there, where the disease has been present for a period of 
years, a few fairly good-sized trees ranging up to twelve inches in 
diameter contained more or less blister rust cankers on their 
branches and some upon the upper main trunk. In most cases 
here, however, the trees themselves were growing in abnormal 
conditions and were equally unhealthy from an unfavorable envi- 
ronment and were afflicted with all the other diseases and insect 
enemies common to their kind. 

In plantations of imported stock the disease is likely to be found, 
and in our younger plantations, if the disease is present, it is in all 
likelihood accounted for in this way. Plantations of native stock 
are practically free from the disease. There is a possible danger, 
however, from these native plantations having been filled in with 
foreign stock, which might account for some infestations. 

Our Massachusetts plantations of foreign stock have been gone 
over each year and the infected trees have been pulled and burned. 
This practice, now running over a period of six years, has resulted 
in less and less infected trees each year, and at no time has the 
percentage of trees affected been as large as one per cent. 

With our present knowledge of the subject, what remains for us 
to do in the future? The writer is willing to state that it is his 
belief that more harm than good has been done by the unnecessary 
agitation in the publicity campaign so systematically carried on at 
great expense, 'exciting people over a subject about which enough 
is not yet known even by experts themselves. It is a very easy 
matter to tear down, but quite another to build up and accomplish 
something. For the past ten years we have been working hard in 
Massachusetts to encourage better forestry practices and reforest- 
ation, particularly with white pine, has just made a good start. 
Our people are interested and enthusiastically cooperating. We 



66 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

have millions of trees in our nurseries ready to go out, and all at 
once under the guise of public-spirited cooperation, and before there 
has been sufficient evidence, a campaign is set in motion to discour- 
age and thwart all our laudable reforestation endeavors. 

Realizing that the blister rust disease needs attention, and believ- 
ing that our forests could be properly safeguarded by those who are 
made responsible for so doing, last year the following recommenda- 
tion was made in the State Forester's annual report, and it is 
believed it will bear repeating now as follows: — 

"The White Pine Blister Rust," one of the diseases of the white 
pine, should be given due consideration at the hands of our vari- 
ous state officials, particularly the pathologist of the Agricultural 
Experiment Station and the State Nursery Inspector, in deter- 
mining our conditions as regards this disease. Some definite 
policy of holding the disease in check, or exterminating it if possible, 
should be adopted. It is believed that while this disease may 
become very destructive to our white pines, nevertheless the danger 
is not sufficient to discourage prospective planters of the white 
pine. It is not our purpose to minimize the importance of this 
disease, nor do we intend to lessen our endeavor to combat it. 
We do, however, believe it is a good policy not to over-exaggerate 
the danger and thus necessarily deter the constructive work of 
reforestation, until there is more convincing proof than is to be 
had at present that the disease is likely to become a great menace 
to white pine. It is to be hoped that the average Massachusetts 
citizen will continue planting white pine as enthusiastically as ever, 
leaving the problem of its protection from diseases and insects to 
be looked after by technically-trained officials." 

We certainly have not sufficient knowledge at the present time 
to determine how serious a situation confronts us in this disease. 
Investigation and experience will have to serve as a guide to future 
operations. From a more or less careful study of conditions my 
personal recommendations for handling this disease for the coming 
year would be as follows : — 

1. Empower a state department with authority to regulate and 
control any and all diseased white pines and Ribes (currants and 
gooseberries), declaring them a public nuisance and to be dealt 
with in a similar manner to that in which gypsy moths are now 
controlled. 



RECENT TROUBLES WITH OUR FOREST TREES 67 

2. Make a sufficient appropriation for carrying the work on as 
the exigencies of the occasion demand from year to year. 

Results are what are desired, and the sooner this disease is con- 
trolled the better. Meanwhile optimism rather than pessimism 
will the better aid in solving our forestry problems. Where there 
is a will there is a way, and Massachusetts does not concede for 
one minute that we are going to lose our white pines, from any 
diagnosis that her State Forester at least can make thus far. 



White Pine Aphid or Mealy-bug. 

This insect is quite common throughout Massachusetts on the 
white pine. It is easily recognized as it is covered with a white 
cottony substance very similar to other species which most every- 
one has seen upon greenhouse or house plants at some time or other. 
This insect occurs on the smooth bark of young trees or on the 
new growth of older trees where it lives by sucking the sap. The 
real damage to the tree comes when these insects are very numer- 
ous. Like all aphids they multiply very rapidly under favorable 
conditions. Wliite pine trees are occasionally found that are 
badly infested. In recent years these insects have gotten into 
forest nursery stock to more or less of an extent, and it is very 
desirable that infested stock be treated before planting. These 
insects while they are found upon perfectly healthy stock neverthe- 
less are far more prevalent upon trees that are more or less ab- 
normal from one cause or another. Trees that are weakened by 
overcrowding or stunted by lack of sunlight, etc. are usually in- 
fested with Chermes or the white pine aphid or mealy-bug. 

During the season of 1914 this insect became quite prevalent 
in Massachusetts on white pine and did a great amount of damage, 
but the two past seasons apparently have not been so favorable 
for its development. That this insect is well worthy of attention 
is true particularly in keeping it out of young pine plantations by 
insisting upon clean stock. It has natural enemies and it can be 
controlled by spraying, but a little foresight and better forestry 
methods of culture will go a long way towards overcoming its 
depredations. 



68 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



The Forest Tent Caterpillar. 

This insect is closely related in its habits to the ordinary orchard 
or apple tent caterpillar which is known to everybody. It, how- 
ever, does not build a large tent and further it has as its name 
implies a greater variety of foods and prefers the forests for its 
ranging grounds. It eats oaks, maples, ash and other deciduous 
trees as well as the leaves of fruit and shade trees. These insects 
strip whole areas of hardwood forests occasionally in like manner 
as the gypsy moth. They have been quite prevalent in localities 
in recent years in this state. They are native insects, and their 
natural enemies have a tendency to keep them in check. Spraying 
as for gypsy moths is effective. 



The White Pine Weevil. 

This is the insect that is responsible for destroying the leader 
in young white pine trees. It is very destructive causing the young 
pines that come up in the open pastures to become very limby 
and hence make poor merchantable lumber when mature. In 
young plantations they are often very destructive. The past 
season was one of the worst we have experienced for this insect. 

The adult insect is similar to the plum curculio in appearance 
only much larger. It lays its eggs in the terminal shoot. These 
eggs hatch and live as larvae or grubs in this shoot until they are 
fully grown and have done all of their eating. They then change 
to the beetle form and deposit eggs for future generations. This 
main shoot should be cut or broken out while the grubs are working 
therein and burned, thereby destroying future generations. This 
insect is native but with our decreasing natural stands of white 
pine they become more concentrated upon our remaining area. 
Our plantations of young white pine should be gone over each year 
while the leaders are easily gotten at. Pruning and thinning with 
an idea of forest improvement of course will aid in overcoming the 
work of this insect. 



RECENT TROUBLES WITH OUR FOREST TREES 69 



Pine Tree Blight. 

This disease of the white pine which was very prevalent through- 
out the season of 1907 has made its appearance again during the 
past year in many sections of Massachusetts. Its chief charac- 
teristic is that the tips of the needles turn brown and die. Some 
trees show the malady more than others, depending upon just how 
far down the needles from the tip the so-called "blight" has spread. 

It is believed there is little that can be done for the trees thus 
affected as it is evidently climatic conditions in all probability 
that are the cause of the trouble. The percentage of trees perma- 
nently affected or that die from this trouble are very small indeed. 
The greatest concern that this disease has caused the past year is 
that it is mistaken for the white pine blister rust. Almost invari- 
ably people believe this trouble to be the blister rust. 

Pathologists have thus far never agreed just as to the cause of 
this malady. When it occurred in 1907 our pine owners were 
equally scared as to the future of white pine as at the present time, 
many going so far as to sell their pine stands at a sacrifice. The 
rainy season of the past year seemed to render conditions favorable 
for its development while in 1907 the season was dry; hence either 
extreme seems to favor it. It evidently is a physiological condition 
rather than a disease. The Massachusetts State Forester's report 
for 1907 gives quite a full report of this pine tree blight. 



Conclusion. 

There are numerous other more or less minor troubles affecting 
our forest trees, but I have covered the more important ones. 
From time to time undoubtedly there will come into prominence 
pests that heretofore have been relatively unimportant, but our 
main concern should be to perfect our forest practices and be 
prepared to cope with any and all forest troubles in a comprehen- 
sive and economic manner. 



HONEY-BEES IN RELATION TO HORTICULTURE. 

By Dr. Burton N. Gates, Amherst, Mass. 



Delivered before the Society, with stereopticon illustrations, 
February 24, 1917. 



Honey-bees in all ages have been of service to man; first as a 
source of food; later in his gradually acquired arts; and but 
recently subjugated to his scientific and technical needs. The 
keeping of bees is old; but the utilization of bees is older, in fact, 
older without doubt, than man's first utilization of the dog-, the 
first domesticated animal. Hence, man's interest in bees and 
perhaps the keeping of them, is the oldest art under the sun. What 
is there more ancient unless it be man himself? Thus through a 
succession of ages are transmitted with increasing serviceableness, 
the inestimable honey-bee. To the ancients they were a source 
of food; more recently they were found to supply wax; but a half 
century ago commercial beekeeping came into being; and only 
today are we beginning to appreciate their greatest benefit, their 
invaluable service in the setting of our crops of seeds, fruit, and 
vegetables. Thus to the labors of the honey-bees, who work the 
world over, unnoticed and often unappreciated, may be credited 
millions and billions of dollars of service; yet to the unthinking 
mind a bee is merely a sharp sting, something to be avoided, 
shunned, or at the best, merely to gladden the taste with a drop of 
honey. 

There are two kinds of bees, solitary and colonial (social). Soli- 
tary bees live isolated and singly, seldom becoming numerous. 
Among the colonial bees are the bumblebee and honey-bee. While 
the honey-bee may be classed as wild when colonies escape from 
apiaries, wild bees may be considered to include particularly all 
bees, solitary and colonial, other than the honey-bee. 

When we speak of bees, the majority think of keeping bees for 
honey production, or sometimes one of the many other specialized 

71 



72 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

pursuits of the beekeeper. We might dwell upon this phase of the 
subject with due profit to the person who could undertake beekeep- 
ing, yet, even greater profits are in store for the person who can 
wisely use bees in his horticultural pursuits. Bees yield the bee- 
keepers of the United States from twenty to twenty-five million 
dollars annually; but their profits to the seed grower, vegetable, 
fruit, and nut grower defy calculation. With unquestioned cer- 
tainty, while usually well repaid for his labor and investment, the 
beekeeper secures only the minor income offered by bees. Honey- 
bees are of greater value to agriculture generally than to apiculture 
in particular; it is to their pollination services as pollen bearers, 
that mankind is indebted over and above their recognized value in 
honey and wax production. Honey-bees, therefore, should find 
unrestricted favor among all who grow seed, fruit, and vegetable 
crops. 

Pollination. 

The story of pollination, the act, its purpose, and result should 
be common knowledge to everyone. Pollination is affected differ- 
ently in different flowers; its effects differ only accidentally. It is 
an act of sex, the enabling of offspring through the seed only being 
possible in most cases among higher plants, through a union of a 
male (pollen grain) and female (egg or ova) cell. 1 Some plants 
demand a cross in this act of pollination; others suffice with self 
or close pollination. Science and experimentation of late teach 
that cross-pollination results, in most of our fruits, in something 
better and even more salable, even in those apples for instance, 
which will set fruit with their own pollen and are self -fertile. These 
diversities and intricacies are apart from our present purpose and, 
in a measure, are in the field of botany, where voluminous informa- 
tion on the many phases of pollination are available. For us it is 
more a question of practical necessities and results than the opera- 
tions of the plant machinery. 

1 What is believed to be the first announcement in recognition of sex in plants was made 
in 1682, by Nehemiah Grew, famous botanist, who explained that pollen must reach the 
stigma or summit of the pistil in order to insure a fruit. For the existence of the plant it 
thus became a question of cross pollination, in order to afford strength, vigor, and adapta- 
bility to its environment. 



HONEY-BEES IN HORTICULTURE 73 

It will suffice to say that pollination is a recognized necessity; 
that among our economic plants the transferring agents of pollen 
are insects, and chief among these usually are honey-bees ; that few, 
if any, of our important vine, bush or tree fruits, are wind polli- 
nated; that cross-pollination is accepted as the rule rather than the 
exception; that cross-pollination results in better size, shape, 
quality (keeping and eating), color, firmness, flavor, texture and 
the like, as well as frequently in better production and prolificness. 

It should be borne in mind, however, that the fruiting of the 
tree, as for instance, the apple tree, depends not only upon the 
insect pollination, but also on its cultural care. For instance, 
a crop of fruit will depend upon the vitality of the tree. In a year 
following a heavy crop, the pollen borne in the blossoms is less virile 
according to the statement made to the writer by Prof. J. W. 
Crow, of the Ontario Agricultural College. The same is true of 
diseased trees. "Microscopically," Professor Crow says, "the 
pollen can be detected as weak." 

During this conversation Professor Crow alluded to other factors 
in pollination. "The best conditions," he says, "for the pollina- 
tion of fruit trees, is just succeeding a shower." This has been 
determined experimentally. Moreover, the pollen supply is 
directly proportional to the set of fruit. 

The act of pollination by honey-bees is usually in response to 
an effort to secure nectar or pollen for food. Hence the close 
relation of fruit and vegetable growing with beekeeping. Were it 
not for the flowers there would be no bees 1 ; safely, too, it is 
assured without the bees there would be a shortage of fruits. 



The Need of Honey-bees in the Setting of Crops. 

It is recorded that in a Massachusetts town, some years ago, 
bees were banished by law, and as a result there was little fruit in 

1 It has been determined by evolutionary thinkers that flowers owe their form and color 
to insects, which have been the selective agency in blossom shape, and markings. Had 
there been no bees and similar insects, there would be no elaborate and many hued flowers; 
had there been no flowers, there would be no bees and similar insects, as we know them. 
There has been this dual biogenic interdependency for centuries, eras and ages, which today 
precludes separability of many plants and their insect pollinators. 



74 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

that town, especially in its center. On the outskirts of the town 
fruits matured more plentifully, suggesting that the bees from the 
woods were able to work the suburbs but not the center of the 
community. 

Today it could hardly be presumed that a community would 
banish honey-bees. It is becoming, too, generally recognized the 
important part which they play in securing our crops. Yet, to a 
large extent, the growers of crops are securing their insect and bee 
service without regard to controlling or reserving their services. 
They are still doing to a certain extent what the people of that early 
Massachusetts town did when they benefited from the services of 
bees of the woods beyond the limits of that town. Today many 
large orchards, market gardens, and seed growing areas, while 
they are having success, are without the producer's knowledge, 
depending on honey-bees which may be wild in the woods or located 
in adjacent apiaries. There is, however, considerable risk in this 
because seasons fail, climatic conditions are undependable, and 
more especially, the prevalence of insect and bee life in any given 
area may vary with these and from year to year. 

It is a well-known fact that the prevalence of all wild life, be it 
plant or animal, is subject to fluctuations, due to favorable or 
unfavorable environmental conditions. In a given locality under 
favorable conditions, its numbers may rise or under unfavorable 
conditions, its prevalence may be less. Take, for example, a pest 
of mosqaitoes or houseflies. In a given community these may be 
prevalent one year due to conditions favorable to their propagation, 
while unfavorable conditions will depress their prevalence during 
successive years. So with wild fowl and fish, weeds, and in fact 
all forms of life uncontrolled by man. This is in accordance with 
the unrefutable, biological law. Honey-bees and wild bees are in 
no way an exception. Even honey-bees under man's control are 
subject to these environmental effects. When favored their num- 
bers rise to the crest of prosperity and prevalence. If un- 
favorable circumstances set in, for instance, the entrance of a bee 
disease, their numbers are reduced; hard winters may also depre- 
ciate them so that in the early season when their services may be 
most needed as pollen bearers their prevalence is at a low ebb. 



HONEY-BEES IN HORTICULTURE 75 



Bees for the Horticulturist. 

When the horticulturist or market gardener realizes that he is 
depending upon the services of the fluctuating wild bees or even 
colonies poorly maintained in his neighborhood, he asks what can 
be done to overcome this unreliability and assure himself that he 
is to receive maximum services when the pollination of his crops 
most need them. The answer and recommendation is an easy one. 
For the protection of his crops he has but to establish an apiary 
in proportion to the size of his orchard or garden, which will main- 
tain a high frequency of honey-bees as pollinators and eliminate 
dependency upon wild honey-bees or honey-bees from neighboring 
apiaries, or more especially the services of wild insect life over 
which he may have no control and which may fail him at a crucial 
moment. There is little danger of over-pollinating the orchard or 
fields in insect life when pollination service is desired. It is far 
better to flood the orchard with bees during the blooming period 
than to have a scarcity. Furthermore, the cost of small apiaries 
for orchard and market garden purposes is infinitesimal as com- 
pared with the possible benefits and returns. 

The common experience of orchardists during the fruit bloom 
period further intensifies the necessity for their control of the 
pollinating agencies. How common it is in May to have inclement 
weather conditions which do not favor the free flight of insects and 
particularly of honey-bees. While wild bees and wild insects are 
sometimes numerous in the vicinity of orchards in bloom, weather 
conditions may entirely prohibit their activities as pollen bearers 
or more particularly, should these insects, especially the honey-bees, 
need to fly a mile or more in order to reach the orchard, the pollina- 
tion of that orchard may be entirely abandoned, due to the pro- 
hibition of the weather, hence, for certainty honey-bees should 
have easy access to an orchard. Numerous observations are on 
record wherein orchards were successfully fertilized when the 
honey-bees had less than one-fourth mile to fly, while more distant 
orchards bore no crops. Thus the apiary in or adjacent to an 
orchard will safeguard failure. 

Particular results as observed by orchardists and beekeepers 



76 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

are numerous and a limited number of those most significant and 
reliable are related elsewhere. 

Among the climatic agencies which affect the orchard, it is 
generally agreed among fruit growers that prevalence of inclement 
weather, rain and the usually accompanying wind during the 
blooming period, causes the loss of more fruit than perhaps ill 
weather at any other season. The damage is manifold; pollen is 
washed from the anthers, stigma secretion washed away or diluted 
so that pollen may fail to germinate; chilled air reduces the vitality 
of the pollen, while an excess of moisture may swell and burst the 
grains. 

There is an accompanying factor which may serve to counteract, 
in part at least, unfortunate weather conditions. The Kansas 
Agricultural Experiment Station is responsible for the statement 
" that an insufficient supply of bees will hinder the setting of fruit 
and while other insects may take part in carrying the pollen, the 
fruit raisers must rely chiefly on honey-bees." Apropos of this 
delayed bloom, in " Bienen-Varter " are given the results of experi- 
ments in which netting was put over the branches of trees at the 
time of their blooming. On the covered limbs the blossoming 
period was prolonged as if the flowers were waiting for the bees to 
pollinate them. The time of prolongation of the bloom on these 
covered hmbs in comparison with uncovered blossoms, is as follows : 

Apple trees, 1 to 3 days, 

Pear trees, 4 to 5 days, 

Plum trees, 4 to 7 days. 
Incidentally it was reported that the fruit failed to set on the 
covered branches. 

A notable example of the effect of unfavorable climatic conditions 
during the blooming period of the apple orchard is reported by F. A. 
Merritt of Andrew, Iowa; "Our apple orchard is situated in such 
a way that it is exposed to both the north and south winds. About 
four years ago when the trees on the south row (Transcendents, 
they throw out a heavy growth of foliage at the same time it blooms) 
began to open their bloom, a heavy wind prevailed for about five 
days. I noticed during this period that the bees could not touch 
the bloom on the south side of the trees, but worked merrily on the 
more sheltered limbs of the north side. What was the result? 



HONEY-BEES IN HORTICULTURE 77 

Those limbs on the north side were well loaded with fruit while 
on the south side there were almost none to be seen." 



Fruits and Vegetables Pollinated by Bees. 

Among the many cultivated plants in northern latitudes which 
are pollinated by honey-bees are the apple, pear, plum, quince, 
cherry, peach (to some extent), mulberry, peas, beans, currants, 
grapes, squashes, melons, cucumbers, and the cranberry. In the 
beekeeping literature, as well as in the publications of horticultur- 
ists, are many instances of the value of bees in setting these various 
fruits and vegetables. It will only be possible to select significant 
illustrations. 

The Apple. It was reported to the writer in 1916, as observed 
by a fruit grower, that merely the top branches of his apple trees 
bore, while the lower ones, which had bloomed equally well, did 
not fruit. The only possible explanation which has been arrived 
at is that the top branches were in the path of bees which polli- 
nated the top bloom but failed to reach the lower. 

Perhaps the most significant report of the effect of the introduc- 
tion of honey-bees to the apple orchard is this specific instance of a 
practical orchardist, Mr. Ralph C. Waring, of Colville, Wash. 
Two orchards of about equal acreage in a western "pocket" in the 
foothills of an admirable fruit land, well drained and protected from 
frost, were owned respectively by two men. One grower secured 
large crops, while his neighbor secured none, although his fruit 
trees were of the same age and blossomed heavily each spring. 
The owner, in despair of financial ruin, called upon the State Experi- 
ment Station for assistance. A specialist, who was a pomologist 
and entomologist, investigated the two entirely comparable 
orchards, and was about to leave without solving the problem when 
the question of bees arose. Upon inquiry it was asserted that no 
bees had been maintained for either orchard. Again going over 
the ground more carefully, the specialist found in a neglected 
corner of the fruiting orchard, a fallen log partially sunken in the 
damp land. This sheltered a very large colony of bees; to its 
services is attributed the success of the orchard. The following 



78 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

year bees were provided in the orchard which had previously failed 
to fruit, resulting in a crop on which the owner netted $3,000. 

Pears. The authority which is usually quoted for the pollina- 
tion of pears is Norman B. Waite, in his publication of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, entitled "The Pollination of 
Pear Flowers." He says, "The common honey-bee is the most 
regular important and abundant visitor and probably does more 
good than any other species." According to Professor Waite, 
moreover, "pears require cross pollination, being partially or 
wholly incapable of setting fruit when limited to their own pollen. 
Some varieties are capable of self-fertilization. Varieties that are 
absolutely self -sterile may be perfectly cross-fertile." These are 
but a few of the thirteen or more conclusions which are drawn 
regarding the cross-pollination of pears. A thirteen per cent set 
of pear bloom is considered an average fruit catch, while a five to 
six per cent catch gives a heavy apple crop (ten to fifteen per cent 
is rare). 

Plums and Prunes. A. H. Hendrickson l has been investigating 
prune and plum pollination during the past several years. Obser- 
vation in 1915 was made of 50,000 plum and prune blossoms, and 
in 191 C, 87,000. These observations have enabled him to draw the 
conclusion "that all varieties of the Japanese group of plums 
(Prunus triflora) are self-sterile with the possible exception of 
Climax. Varieties of this group seem to cross-pollinate readily. 
Of the European varieties of plums (Prunus domestica) Tragedy 
and Clyman show distinct evidence of self -sterility." 

Of the prune, the French and Sugar prunes seem to be self -sterile 
to some extent. Robe de Sergeant and Imperial prunes are dis- 
tinctly self-sterile. They, however, seem to cross-pollinate satis- 
factorily. 

These observations were the result of a noticeable lack in the 
setting of certain orchards. The normal set of French prunes was 
about 4% as compared with 19% which was covered with a mos- 
quito net tent under which bees were confined. Thus it has been 
concluded that the " French prune at least may be aided in setting 
a satisfactory crop by the presence of a large number of bees in the 

1 University of California Bulletin, 274, "The Common Honey-bee as an Agent in Prune 
Pollination." 



HONEY-BEES IN HORTICULTURE 79 

orchard during the blossoming period." Further, "Without the 
aid of bees or other insects, the set of fruit on the French prune is 
often light." Moreover, "the Imperial does not seem able to set 
fruit unless pollinated by insects with pollen from the trees." 

As a result of these observations, the author has stated that some 
growers will maintain their own apiaries, others will hire bees, while 
still others will give apiary rights in their orchards. The investi- 
gations and experiments are to be continued. 1 

Cherry. Observations were also made on cherries during 1916, 
showing that the "leading commercial varieties grow in the State 
[of California] including Napoleon (Royal Ann), Lambert, Bing, 
Black Tartarian, and Black Republican are self-sterile. There is 
also distinct evidence of intersterility between several varieties, 
for example, Bing and Napoleon. The work has not yet gone far 
enough to determine the best pollinizers for cherries in this State." 

It has also been reported elsewhere that the owner of a large 
cherry orchard in California did not harvest any crop for eight 
successive years. In desperation he was about to dig up his trees 
when he was advised to introduce bees, with the result that he 
afterwards sold his cherry crop in the Chicago and New York City 
markets for $4,000. It is also reported by another Californian 
that one hundred colonies are necessary for one hundred and forty 
acres of cherry trees. 

For Massachusetts conditions, everyone who has any familiarity 
with the pollination of cherry trees, recognizes at once the tre- 
mendous activities which bees make in our cherry trees while in 
bloom. The writer on one occasion observed that only that 
portion of a cherry tree which was sheltered from the west winds 
by a house, was satisfactorily pollinated and set fruit. There can 
be little doubt of the importance of honey-bees in cherry pollination. 

Peach. Professor J. W. Crow, of the Ontario Agricultural 
College, in remarks made in January, 1913, says "that some 
varieties of peaches are as dependent on bees as are apples." 
The writer's observation, however, is that bees are less active in 
blooming peach orchards than they are in many other fruit orchards. 
This may not be due to the lack of nectar in the peach bloom, but 

1 Journal of Heredity, Volume VII, December, 1916, page 545. 



80 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY 

perhaps to an excess of nectar elsewhere, which fact would only 
emphasize the necessity for additional bees if their service is ex- 
pected in setting peaches. 

In the orchard house of Stephen Morris, Philadelphia, where 
peaches are grown by the bushel in fifteen-inch pots under glass, 
the grower attributes much of his success to the effectual pollina- 
tion of the blossoms by bees. It is his custom to place a colony in 
the house as soon as the buds appear. The bees remain until the 
petals fall. 

Raspberry. It is only necessary to ask any good beekeeper in a 
raspberry growing district whether the bees visit raspberry bloom; 
he will tell you that some of the finest honey on the market is 
raspberry honey. All forms of raspberry, wild and cultivated, 
are most frequently attended by honey-bees. 

Blackberry. While there is this peculiar affinity of the raspberry 
for bees, the blackberry, at least certain species, are less frequently 
visited. Some forms of wild blackberry are visited by bees more 
readily than apparently are cultivated varieties. 

Strawberry. There seems to be a considerable diversity of opin- 
ion in regard to the importance of bees in strawberry culture. 
Professor J. W. Crow of the Ontario Agricultural College, in 
January, 1913, said "Strawberries are five to ten per cent wind 
pollinated. A strawberry as soon as pollinated drops its petals, 
otherwise it remains for a longer time receptive to pollen." In 
1916 Mr. E. G. Carr of New Jersey assured the writer that "bees 
worked strawberry beds freely in New Jersey." The writer has 
also seen bees active on strawberry plots in Maryland. These 
same plots at certain times and under given circumstances, appar- 
ently are unvisited by honey-bees. There is doubtless a chance 
for further observation along the line of the effect of climatic 
conditions perhaps on the nectar flow on strawberries. There is 
always to be regarded, too, the counter attraction of other nectar 
sources when strawberries are in bloom. 

Cranberry. Recent investigations have shown that honey-bees 
are of prime importance in setting cranberries. The owners of 
cranberry bogs in Massachusetts, realizing this, are maintaining 
their own apiaries, or hiring colonies for service on their bogs. 
It is estimated that it is desirable to have one colony for every two 



HONEY-BEES IN HORTICULTURE 81 

acres. The results of experiments with bees in cranberry culture 
have been reported by Dr. H. J. Franklin, of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College Experimental Bog in Wareham. It is not 
maintained, however, that the honey-bee is the only bee of service 
in the cranberry bog, for the solitary bees are also found. 

Almonds. During 1916 1 "'Observations on almonds by Tufts 
show that there is a distinct pollination problem with this fruit. 
Thirteen varieties, including practically all grown on a commercial 
scale in California, proved to be wholly self -sterile under conditions 
existing at the University Farm. . . .Of still greater importance is 
t the fact that two leading varieties were found to be intersterile as 
well as self-sterile." 

It is well known to beekeepers that bees work almond trees. 
Some of the large and successful apiaries of California are located 
in almond orchards. 

Vegetables. Chief among the vegetables which depend upon the 
honey-bee to a considerable extent for pollination are all the cucur- 
bitaceous varieties, as field squash, cucumbers, melons, pumpkins, 
and the like. An observation has been made by Mr. Gregory of 
Massachusetts, who asserts that honey-bees are highly important 
in the setting of squashes, and claims also that the honey from 
squash is inferior. 

It has been repeatedly observed that honey-bees are utilized in 
field cucumber growing, especially where a large number of small 
pickling cucumbers are produced. In Massachusetts, too, one 
noted melon grower hires bees for the sole purpose of setting his 
melon crop. This producer has told the writer that to his utiliza- 
tion of bees he attributes in a large measure his success with musk- 
melons and cantaloupes, which he sends to the finest hotels in the 
country. 

The growing of cucumbers under glass, while a special industry, 
is merely the adaptation of the utilization of honey-bees. Annually 
several thousand colonies, perhaps three thousand, are used in the 
cucumber greenhouses in Massachusetts alone. Hand pollination 
is impossible and long ago dispensed with. One grower alone uses 
upwards of eighty colonies a year. 

1 Journal of Heredity, Vol. VII, No. 12, December, 1916, "Pollination Studies on Cali- 
fornia Fruits," page 545. 



82 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Bees to some extent have also been used in the setting of toma- 
toes in greenhouses, and by some it has been thought that a better 
crop of tomatoes is secured thereby. 



Securing and Maintaining Bees. 

Honey-bees are available for horticultural purposes in several 
ways. In some instances, a small number of colonies are hired 
for a period of a few weeks during the blossoming time of some 
particular crop. In other instances, fruit growers induce beekeep- 
ers to establish an apiary in their orchard, by granting them privi- 
leges and accommodations. For instance, in California, orchard- 
ists not infrequently furnish sites for apiaries and offer other induce- 
ments to locate there, as perhaps the orchardist will furnish the 
stands for the bee hives. This is typical of the cooperation of fruit 
growers and beekeepers throughout the Sacramento Valley. In 
Wisconsin, too, it has been stated that all large orchardists now 
have their apiaries in or near by. Many of the more thoughtful 
growers, however, believe it advisable to maintain their own bees. 
This can be done in one of several ways; given the time and the 
aptitude, the orchardist or some one hired for the purpose, may be 
the beekeeper; otherwise a circuit beekeeper may be employed. 
This practice is growing in favor among those owning moderate 
sized orchards, as well among the greenhouse cucumber growers 
and cranberry growers. The custom is to hire a practical apiarist 
to come periodically and care for the bees. Thus if this practical 
apiarist has similar engagements throughout a given district, the 
expense to each orchardist or cranberry grower is slight. Moreover, 
this cooperative plan assures the maximum efficiency of his colo- 
nies without burdening him with additional detail. 

In securing bees for horticultural purposes one of the first requis- 
ites is healthy stock. Those who maintain bees for greenhouse 
purposes, will find it advantageous to own their own colonies rather 
than to purchase annually. 

Purchasing the Stock. If bees are purchased it is advisable to 
secure healthy stock. Bees are subject to at least two prevalent 
diseases, known respectively as American foulbrood and European 



HONEY-BEES IN HORTICULTURE 83 

foulbrood, to which colonies unattended may succumb rapidly. 
The inexperienced, therefore, should secure information and 
ascertain that the bees have been inspected for disease. Should 
disease set in a considerable loss of both bees and possibly to the 
orchard or market garden might result in a short time. Informa- 
tion concerning these diseases may usually be had through ex- 
periment stations, agricultural colleges, the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, or in many states, through the Inspector of Apiaries. 

Usually it is desirable to secure bees in hives which have remov- 
able frames. The ten-frame Langstroth hive is considered stand- 
ard. By such an equipment uniformity with stock acquired later 
on or supplies procured is more readily assured. The bee for 
general purposes is the Italian bee. 

Since' the subject of this paper precludes an exhaustive discussion 
of the manipulation of bees, details concerning this may be had 
upon request of the author. There are, however, numerous books, 
bulletins and other sources of information available through the 
public libraries. 



Alleged Injury to Fruit by Honey-bees. 

It is occasionally alleged that bees damage the orchard in one 
of several ways. In one instance the writer was complained to 
by a farmer- that the bees from his neighbor were " sucking the 
sweetness out of the flowers. They are there in thousands and are 
making the petals drop. I will be ruined by fall if something is not 
done." How little he realized, however, the good services which the 
bees were performing. 

Sometimes it is concluded too hastily when bees are seen upon 
fallen and partially decayed fruit or possibly on overripe peaches 
which are still on the tree, that the bees have cut holes in this fruit. 
It is thought that the honey-bee is the cause of the injury. On the 
other hand, if the honey-bee's activity could have been traced, it 
would have been found that something other than the bee had 
first pierced the skin of the fruit. Investigations show that wasps 
or birds do this or that a fungus may disintegrate the skin. In 
some such break in the skin the honey-bee can work, but not until 



84 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

the skin has been broken by some other means than that which the 
.honey-bee possesses can she gain access to juices, even to so tender 
skinned fruit as grapes or plums. It has been proven by experi- 
ments that the honey-bee is physically incapable of puncturing a 
sound fruit. 

In some instances redress for alleged damage to ripe fruit by 
honey-bees has been referred to the courts. One of the most cele- 
brated cases of this kind was that of Utter vs. Utter, having taken 
place at Amity, N. Y. This case resulted in the unanimous deci- 
sion of the jury to the effect that bees do not puncture sound fruit. 

Experimental tests of the ability of bees to puncture fruit have 
been made at the Ottawa Experiment Station in Ontario, Canada. 
Ripe strawberries were first tried and then raspberries. These 
were suspended within the hives as well as in other places of easy 
access to bees. The fruits were exposed in at least three different 
ways. First, the whole fruit; second, whole fruit which had been 
dipped in honey; and third, similar fruit but with a slight pinhole 
puncture in each. A second series of experiments was made 
similarly with peaches, pears, plums, and grapes. "The bees 
began to work at once both upon the dipped and punctured fruit. 
The former was cleaned thoroughly of honey during the first night ; 
upon the punctured fruit the bees clustered thickly, sucking the 
juice through the punctures as long as they could obtain any liquid. 
At the end of six days all the fruit was carefully examined. The 
sound fruit was still uninjured in any way. The dipped fruit was 
in like condition, quite sound, but every vestige of honey had dis- 
appeared. The punctured fruit was badly mutilated and worthless ; 
beneath each puncture was a cavity, and in many instances decay 
had set in. The experiment was continued during the following 
week, the undipped fruit being left in the brood-chamber; the 
dipped fruit was given a new coating of honey and replaced in the 
super, and a fresh supply of punctured fruit was substituted for 
that which had been destroyed. 

"After the third week the bees that belonged to the two hives, 
which had been deprived of all their honey, appeared to be very 
sluggish, and there were many dead bees about the hives; the 
weather being damp and cool was very much against those colo- 
nies. These colonies had lived for the first three weeks on the punc- 
tured fruit and on the honey off of the fruit which had been dipped ; 



HONEY-BEES IN HORTICULTURE 85 

as there were at that season few plants in flower from which they 
could gather nectar, these bees had died of starvation, notwith- 
standing the proximity of the ripe juicy fruit. The supply of food 
which they were so urgently in need of was only separated from 
them by the skin of the fruit, which, however, this evidence proves, 
they could not puncture, as they did not do so." 



Alleged Injury to Pear Orchards by Blight. 

Some years ago, opinion among fruit growers that bees were 
agents for transporting the spores of pear blight and thus the agent 
of dissemination of this dread plant disease, became prevalent. 
Various experiments were carried on in order to prove the assertion. 
In 1901 considerable trouble arose in Kings County, California, 
between the pear growers and beekeepers. The situation became 
tense. Further investigations were made. Bees were temporarily 
removed from pear orchards, but this precaution was found not to 
prevent the spread of pear blight. It was therefore assumed that 
there were sufficient bees, wild honey-bees and other insects, in- 
cluding ants, which were going from tree to tree by thousands, 
and hence were also agents in the transportation of pear blight. 
These were conditions over which man had no control. Hence, 
the honey-bees were allowed to be returned, it having been con- 
cluded that these should render invaluable service in the cross- 
pollination of the bloom. Recently investigations, notably those 
of Dr. J. H. Merrill, have fortunately for the beekeeper's interest, 
vindicated the honey-bee. In fact, it is improbable that the honey- 
bee has any part in fire-blight dissemination. By inoculation 
experiments and extended observation, aphids or plant lice which 
infest fruit trees, are found to be an active means of transmission. 
In conclusion of his latest observations, Dr. Merrill says, 1 

"1. The blight developed only in the tender succulent growth 
on the twigs. 

"2. By hatching from eggs laid in blight cankers, the aphids 
come in contact with the fire-blight organism. 

1 Dr. J. H. Merrill, 1917, "Further Data on the Relation Between Aphids and Fire Blight 
(Bacillus amylovorus Bur. Trev.) Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 10, No. 1, pages 
45-46. 



86 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

"3. Aphids can and do inoculate trees with the bacteria of 
fire-blight. 

"4. The amount Of fire-blight infection in an orchard may be 
materially decreased by destroying all of the aphids which may 
appear there." 

Injury to Cultivated Flowers. 

Occasionally a beekeeper says that bees are injuring cultivated 
flowers, grown perhaps professionally by the floriculturists. The 
bees can hardly with justice be blamed. They are responding 
merely to their natural inclinations, namely to secure pollen or 
nectar. Having visited a flower and perhaps pollinated it, the 
flower at once responds according to its natural inclination, with 
the results that it drops its petals. In this way bees may cause 
flowers to pass more quickly than might be desired. It is pursuant 
to the law which was observed in the prolonged blooming period 
of apple orchards due to lack of pollination and which is mentioned 
above. If flowers are grown under glass and bees tend to mature 
them too rapidly, the floriculturist may exclude the bees by screen- 
ing his greenhouse windows. Snapdragons are an example of a 
flower which quickly responds to pollination and drops its lower 
blooms, thus giving a ragged or unsightly stalk. A floriculturist 
on one occasion called the writer's attention to a considerable 
quantity of snapdragon which had been injured, from the market 
standpoint, by having been visited and pollinated by bees. How- 
ever, on the whole this type of injury by bees can hardly be credited 
as being usual or severe. 



Spraying vs. Beekeeping. 

Of late there has been considerable discussion among the fruit 
growers and others who practice spraying and the beekeepers. 
Beekeepers have claimed severe losses due to injudicious and 
improper spraying. It is a pleasure to say the beekeepers are not 
narrow enough to presume that spraying should be stopped and 
yet, there is justification for their presumption that spraying should 
be done properly and in such a way as not to injure or destroy their 



HONEY-BEES IN HORTICULTURE 87 

bees. On the whole good spraying practices will in no way con- 
flict with the beekeeper's interests. Occasionally there may be 
some slight damage, but wholesale destruction has usually been 
traced to improper spraying practices. Generally speaking, it 
will suffice to say that a tree, or bloom of any kind, does not need 
to be sprayed until the petals have fallen. At this time bees are 
not inclined to visit the flowers, hence there can be little danger of 
injuring the apiary. The problem as a whole, however, is an 
intricate one, and where questions arise as to the time and advisa- 
bility of spraying, they should be referred to an authority for dis- 
cussion or settlement. 

Experiments have been and are being made on the use of re- 
pellents to bees in spray mixtures. Beekeepers hope, and doubtless 
fruit growers and those who use spray poisons will be glad to 
cooperate, that the time is not far distant when the bees can be 
repelled so that by no accident will they come in contact with a 
poisonous spray. As yet, no definite instructions can be given 
for the use of repellents to bees in spray mixtures. 

As a preliminary observation, the writer l on July 7, 1916, 
applied lime-sulphur spray to a European linden which was in full 
bloom. One-half only of the tree was sprayed with a solution of 
1-25, the strength usually employed in spraying operations. The 
spraying was done between 9: 30 and 10 o'clock in the morning of 
a bright calm day. The following observations were obtained: 

Results of Lime Sulphur as a Repellent. 

In the sprayed half of the tree : — 

15 honey-bees. 

Some wild bees. 

1 milkweed butterfly. 

Flies of various types numerous. 
In the unsprayed half of the tree : — 

53 honey-bees. 

Wild bees. 

Flies numerous. 

4 Bombus. 

1 Gates, Burton N., Seventh Annual Report of the State Inspector of Apiaries for the 
Year 1916, Mass. State Board of Agriculture. Apiary Series Bulletin No. 11, pp. 16-19. 



88 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Apparently, however, after the first day, there was an increased 
number of bees in the sprayed portion of the tree, and a decrease 
in numbers in the unsprayed portion, which suggests the loss of 
repellent powers in the sprayed portion and a decrease in the 
general activity of the bees working linden; hence the observations 
may be questioned. On the third or fourth day, scarcely a bee 
could be seen in any part of the tree. Thus with limited trials, 
no definite conclusions could be reached. 

A report of Forest Commissioner Wm. W. Colton, of Newton, 
along these lines, is that a material similar to sulpho-naphthol, 
"Milkol" may serve as a repellent. His observation is the result 
of having used "Milkol" in municipal spraying, during the season 
of 1916. 

Summary. 

Bees and beekeeping are inestimably important to the horti- 
culturist. He may fertilize and cultivate the soil, prune, thin, and 
spray his trees, in a word, he may do all those things which modern 
practice advocates, yet without his pollinating agents, chief among 
which are the honey-bees, to transfer the pollen from the stamen 
to the pistil of the bloom, his crops may fail. Honey-bees in an 
orchard are an item of assurance or insurance and protection. 
Usually the expenditure is so slight that it does not warrant com- 
parison with the possible and probable returns. 



STRAWBERRY CULTURE. 
By 0. M. Taylor, Geneva, N. Y. 



Delivered before the Society, March 3, 1917. 



Of all the small fruits which occupy the time and attention of both 
New York and Massachusetts growers, the strawberry is outrivalled 
by neither blackberries, raspberries, currants, nor gooseberries, 
its acreage for Massachusetts more than doubling the combined 
area of all these fruits, according to the figures of the last Govern- 
ment census. This position of deserved popularity is held not 
through any manipulation of real estate brokers or of stock markets 
or from glowing descriptions of printer's ink and artist's brush, 
but because the fruit has won its high standing on its own merits. 

It is true that the strawberry is the first of the small fruits to 
tempt the eye and the appetite in early summer and doubtless this 
fact adds to the zest with which the fruit is greeted at that time; 
but few indeed are the people who are not delighted both outwardly 
and inwardly by the handsome appearance, delicate aroma, and 
pleasing flavor of this class of fruit. Home-grown fruits begin to 
ripen about the middle of June or slightly earlier and for about three 
weeks there is no time when the table should not be supplied in 
abundance with the choicest berries and if one chooses to gather 
fruit in July, August, September, and October, and occasionally 
in November, it may be done by giving attention to some of the 
fall-bearing kinds; and we are then in position to echo the state- 
ment of Bryant as to the 

"Fruits that shall swell in sunny June 
And redden in the August noon." 

A discussion of the culture of the strawberry leads into too many 
paths and byways to make it at all possible for a full consideration 
of the subject at this time, and in the attempt to touch upon some 
of the most important factors of its successful culture it will be 
necessary to ignore completely many points and to touch others 

89 



90 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

very lightly, while more attention must be given to some of those 
subjects which are the determinants of success or failure, any one 
of which, if lacking, may spell disaster to the strawberry grower. 

It is taken for granted that the greatest interest centers around 
the growing of the strawberry for commercial purposes and not 
for home use although the latter field is far too much neglected, 
the requirements of which are somewhat different from the com- 
mercial end of the business. For instance, in the home the ques- 
tion of quality stands first, and heavy yield is not so essential, but 
for commercial work, no matter what happens, the variety must be 
sufficiently firm to ship well and the plants must be good yielders. 

Detailed statements of actual operations are not in order at this 
time. They vary with the locality and the particular environment, 
and are as diverse as are the number of men growing the fruit. 
But there are certain essential factors of strawberry growing which 
are unchangeable wherever strawberries are grown and which will 
apply in Massachusetts just as they equally apply in New York or 
any other state. Any variety of strawberry to do well must be 
adapted to its environment and must find its local surroundings 
congenial or it will fail in part or altogether and become a profitless 
instead of a profitable kind. 

Soil and climate with its twin subjects of temperature and rain- 
fall spell success or failure with the strawberry. Fortunately, 
temperature feels more kindly disposed toward the strawberry than 
is the case with the raspberry and blackberry and it is seldom we 
hear of winter injury to this fruit, especially if the ground has its 
normal covering of winter's snow and if the plants have had their 
blanket of some mulch material. The fruit itself is occasionally 
injured by the intense heat of the sun, especially during showery 
weather, but the plants as a whole may be considered hardy. 

Rainfall, however, is a more trying problem. The strawberry, 
of all small fruits has its root system nearest the surface, has the 
smallest capacity of soil space for root run and consequently is 
more quickly affected by varying conditions of moisture. This is 
especially true at fruiting time, during which a few days of severe 
drought may reduce the yield fifty per cent. There must be 
present, therefore, if the strawberry is to succeed, a proper amount 
of moisture whether it is supplied naturally or artificially. 



STBAWBEBBY CULTDBE 91 

The soil is the next important determinant. There is no question 
but that many varieties are partial as to soils. Just what the 
determining soil character is, cannot always be ascertained. We 
know that some varieties prefer a heavy clay soil, while other 
kinds are only at home in a light soil type, and doubtless many a 
variety would become surprisingly profitable could its soil prefer- 
ence be known. In a general way. however, most varieties are at 
their best in a wide range of soils, with the preference toward a 
well-drained, loamy soil, not too heavy, containing an abundance 
of available plant food and humus. Levels or slopes and direction 
of exposure are usually of minor importance. 

Climate and soil being well disposed, there yet remain several 
factors of location which at once become great assets or heavy 
handicaps. These are distance of market, road conditions, char- 
acter of market, facilities having to do with transportation, whether 
by rail or water, the avail ability of plenty of cheap and reasonably 
efficient labor. The ideal market is a good local one, but at the 
same time with opportunity to shift quickly to a more distant 
market whenever desirable and it is also a great asset not to have 
that market under the control of distant growers who through 
more favorable conditions are able to capture and often flood it 
just as the local fruit reaches maturity. 

There is great agreement as to the value of stable manure for the 
strawberry. Discord and harsh sounds greet the ear. however, 
when an attempt is made to line up the best fertilizers for this fruit. 
No sooner has one grower solved the problem to his personal satis- 
faction than his neighbor goes him one better by securing a much, 
heavier yield and a more handsome product with a formula quite 
different. Another grower trys to copy the method of his successful 
neighbor only to meet with failure. Growers should experiment 
by using various amounts and kinds of the fertilizers rich in the 
chief elements of plant food, nitrogen, potassium, and phosphoric 
acid, until by trial they have worked out the preparations which 
give them the best results under their own farm and soil conditions. 

A discussion of varieties and how to select them is reserved for a 
later paragraph. Some attention, however, should be given to the 
kind of plants to set. Are all equally good? Can we secure an 
advantage at the start by good judgment in the selection of the 



92 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

stock for the new plantations? From where and what plants shall 
we select? Shall we turn to the much advertised "Pedigreed" 
or "Improved Strains" or can we by selection build up a class of 
plants superior to the ordinary run? Time forbids a detailed dis- 
cussion of these questions. Briefly stated, strong, vigorous, stocky, 
apparently healthy plants, with a good root system will start into 
new growth more quickly than weaklings, and stock should be 
taken from vigorous beds which have not become exhausted by a 
yield of fruit, selecting the larger, more mature, and older runner 
plants in preference to those developing late in the season, found 
along the outer border of the strawberry row. Experience has 
already taught growers to look with suspicion at the well-written, 
glowing accounts of the great value of "Pedigreed" stock or "Im- 
proved Strains" which are usually quoted at a high price. Many 
times such plants are no better than those close at hand of the type 
just described as a desirable stock. Would that we were certain 
by careful, continued selection to build up improved strains. 
Apparently a correct and plausible theory, and one which naturally 
commends itself to all who are desirous of raising the standard of 
excellence, yet no indisputable proof has been brought forward that 
such is the general result, while strange to say some of the most 
painstaking and careful experiments carried on continuously for a 
dozen years or more have left the experimenter in the dark as to 
the correctness of this whole theory and this statement holds true 
with tree fruits as well as with the strawberry. All efforts, however, 
to improve the plants should be encouraged, for the best are none 
too good. 

Sex of Varieties. Some attention must be given to sex. The 
grower should know whether his varieties are perfect or imperfect, 
flowering or staminate or pistillate as they are sometimes called. 
The present tendency is toward the perfect-flowering kinds although 
some excellent varieties like the Sample and the Columbia are 
among the imperfect-flowering kinds, and where such kinds are 
grown provision must be made through the selection of other 
varieties to provide for the cross pollination of the blossoms. The 
fertilization of all strawberry blossoms is made possible mostly 
through the work of insects as they journey from flower to flower. 
As a rule more efficient pollination may be expected if more than 



STRAWBERRY CULTURE 93 

one variety is grown in the same field, and there is no danger of 
any change in color, shape, or flavor through the influence of the 
pollen of different varieties. Weather conditions, rains, cold, 
heavy winds, frosts, lack of insects, or the particular variety, all 
have a bearing on the completeness or incompleteness of the 
fertilization of the blossoms and upon the increase or decrease of 
"nubbins." Contrary to the opinion of some growers, there is 
no correllation between sex and yield. 

Preparation of soil. "Well begun is half done" in preparing 
the soil to receive the strawberry plants and seldom if ever is its 
preparation overdone. If the soil be foul it may be necessary to 
begin a year before setting the plants by the use of cultivated 
crops. The applications of manure to the soil, time and depth of 
plowing, particular methods of bringing the soil bed into the best 
possible condition for the plants are as diverse and various as 
are the men growing the crop. There is no one method best 
adapted to all conditions and soils. Emphasis, however, should be 
laid on the importance of a well-prepared, thoroughly worked 
soil which has been put into good tilth, so that the plants will 
"take hold" as quickly as possible after setting. 

Preparation of plants for setting. No elaborate system of prepa- 
ration is necessary. The plants should of course not be permitted 
to wilt and dry out during the interval between digging and plant- 
ing; dead runners should be removed, as well as some of the older 
leaves and the roots "shortened in" about one-third their length. 

Setting the plants. There is no uniformity among growers as to 
distance between rows and plants, the exact time or method of 
setting, or the system used. Plants should not be crowded. 
Distance depends partly on the habit of the variety and partly 
on the system of growing, whether it be the matted row, the hill, 
or a modified form of either. The matted row system which is in 
most common use calls for a width of about four feet between rows, 
and from eighteen to twenty-four inches between plants, while the 
hill system requires less space each way. Both methods have 
their advantages and disadvantages. All are agreed as to the 
desirability of setting at the proper depth, neither too shallow nor 
too deep, the crown of the plant being on a level with the surface 
of the ground, and in New York spring setting is the rule. 



94 MASSACHUSETTS HOKTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Treatment the first summer. Cultivation should begin as soon as 
the plants are set, and should be repeated whenever necessary to 
maintain a good physical soil condition about the young plants, 
and is dependent largely on type of soil and condition of rainfall. 
Usually the entire land is given over to the strawberry crop but 
under favorable conditions inter-crops or companion crops of low 
and quick growing vegetables are used but this is not a common 
practice. Spring set plants should not bear fruit the first year, 
the blossom clusters being removed, so that the plants themselves 
may develop more rapidly. The first runners should be encouraged 
to root as soon as ready. The cultivator must be narrowed as 
the runners occupy the ground. It is doubtful if the practice .of 
sowing a cover-crop among the plants in the fall should be encour- 
aged, as the disadvantages more than offset the advantages gained. 

Winter treatment. Strawberry plants are perfectly hardy yet 
some winter protection should be provided. The frozen ground 
should be covered lightly with some material of a strawy nature, 
not for the purpose of keeping the plants warm but to lessen the 
damage to the plants from the repeated freezing and thawing of 
the ground! This is but one of a half dozen benefits to be secured 
by the use of a winter mulch. Materials used are dependent on 
what may be available, anything that will accomplish the results 
desired, and which will in no way injure the plants. 

Treatment the fruiting season. The strawberry bed usually 
requires but little attention the following spring. As warm 
weather approaches the winter mulch may require stirring to keep 
the plants from becoming smothered and when too thick the 
surplus is placed between the rows. Occasionally if land is foul 
it may be necessary to remove the mulch and cultivate between 
the rows after which the mulch is replaced, and the largest weeds 
cut out or pulled after rains. It is doubtful if the possible benefit 
of smudging as a protection against late frosts at blossoming time 
will warrant much expense in the purchase of any of the various 
smudging devices now on the market. The certainty of any 
benefit is far too uncertain. 

Renewal of beds. Generally but one crop of fruit, yet in many 
cases two and occasionally three crops are removed before the 
strawberry bed is discarded. It depends largely on the condition 



STRAWBERRY CULTURE 95 

of the bed. No ironclad rule can be laid down, either as to how 
many crops shall be harvested or the particular method to follow 
in the renovation of the old bed. Usually by some method the 
matted row is narrowed down, the ground which has become hard 
and compact by the pickers is broken up and thoroughly worked, 
the remaining plants put in the very best possible condition to 
start new growth, stable manure or fertilizer added if available. 
There is no uniform practice as to mowing and burning over the 
old bed, some successful growers never omitting the operation, 
while other equally as successful growers never practice the method. 
It has some advantages and also some disadvantages. 

Irrigation of strawberries. The importance of an adequate 
supply of moisture has already been referred to. All strawberry 
growers are familiar with the disastrous effects of periods of drought 
and it would seem at first sight as highly desirable to install some 
system whereby one would not be at the mercy of the elements as 
far as they relate to the water supply. Were it possible to control 
or regulate natural rainfall or to prognosticate the future weather 
conditions with accuracy, a regular, never failing, always available 
artificial water supply might become a valuable asset to the straw- 
berry grower, but unfortunately, in New York State at least, we 
not only have no control over nature's operations but also are 
exceedingly poor guessers when it comes to foretelling the weather; 
and the experience of many a grower who has installed some plant, 
as the "Skinner" system for instance, has found that the systems 
rust out far quicker than they wear out and that in a series of years 
there has been but little if any financial return at all adequate to 
the amount of investment involved. There are, of course, excep- 
tions to this experience. It would seem, however, judging by past 
experience, to be highly desirable to more fully make use of the 
means already at hand of conserving and utilizing the moisture 
supply normally available through more intensive methods of 
cultivation, and of previous soil preparation, especially by increas- 
ing its capacity to hold and retain moisture. 

Pests and their control. Some benign influence must brood over 
the strawberry, shielding and protecting against many of the 
troubles that fruits are heir to, for it may truthfully be said that 
items for spray machinery and for spray materials are conspicuous 



96 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

by their absence from the expense account of the strawberry grower. 
But very few if any strawberry growers ever spray. This does 
not mean that this fruit is immune from attacks of insects or 
fungi, but it emphasizes the truth of the statement just made as 
to comparative freedom from such troubles. The rotation is so 
short — the shortest of all the small fruits — that the pests are 
scarcely able to obtain a foothold. White grubs are occasionally 
troublesome, being the larvae from the "June bugs," and are most 
abundant in grass lands, which should be avoided as far as possible, 
although fall plowing may destroy some of the insects. Leaf rollers 
are sometimes in evidence, small, brownish caterpillars which roll 
or fold over a portion of the leaf, feeding within the protecting fold. 
Arsenate of lead, applied before the insect is protected or burning 
the beds after fruiting and if necessary, a later arsenical spray will 
destroy many of the insects in cases of severe infestations. The 
strawberry weevil occasionally puts in an appearance. Unfortu- 
nately, the egg which hatches into a whitish grub is laid in the 
flower bud where the grub feeds on the pollen. No satisfactory 
remedy can be given. Burning over the beds, clean culture, and a 
quick rotation furnish some relief. 

Among diseases, leaf spot is the most serious trouble, but is 
dependent on certain weather conditions. Good air and soil- 
drainage with selection of somewhat resistant varieties aid in 
reducing the amount of injury. In severe cases, spraying with 
bordeaux mixture (3-3-50) as growth begins and again just before 
blossoming time will be found beneficial. Arsenate of lead may be 
combined for insect troubles. A quick rotation already referred to, 
tends to keep down both insects and disease. 

Picking and marketing. Well begun is half done; yet the straw- 
berry grower is scarcely more than half done when the fruit reaches 
maturity. There yet remains the task of picking, packing, ship- 
ping, and marketing the fruit, during which time the grower is 
largely at the mercy of weather conditions entirely beyond control. 
Here again, details vary to suit the locality or the whim or notion 
of the grower and are almost as various as the number of growers; 
but all are agreed on the importance of having the fruit arrive at 
its destination in good condition, free from bruises, well colored, 
fairly uniform in size of berry, packed neatly in clean, attractive- 



STRAWBERRY CULTURE 97 

looking baskets. The acme of success can never be reached when 
berries of all sizes and colors, with and without hulls, overripe and 
underripe are placed in the same box. 

Yields, costs, and profits. Would that it were possible to make 
accurate statements in regard to productiveness, the many items 
of expense connected with growing the crop and in addition to 
these, all the items connected with harvesting and marketing the 
crop, including the all-important item of selling price, so that 
profits, always alluring yet by far too elusive, might be determined, 
or as sometimes occurs, the amount of loss determined. Were 
all factors constant, the results would be a question of mathematics, 
but unfortunately some items vary from year to year, others are 
never alike on any two farms, while still other factors are entirely 
beyond the control of the grower, making hasty determinations of 
probable yields, costs, and profits largely guesses and at this time 
we leave all such calculations to others. 

We are, however, concerned with averages, which will appear low 
to many of the more successful growers, but they represent the 
concensus of opinion among conservative observers. 3000 quarts 
per acre is considered an average yield, while the average cost of 
growing a 32-quart crate of berries and placing it on the market is 
in the neighborhood of $1.00 per crate, placing a fair profit at about 
$1.00 per crate, the amount of yield largely determining the amount 
of the profit. 

What to plant. We come now to our last subject, by no means 
least in importance, always one of the most perplexing and baffling 
of solution. W 7 ith the best of climatic and soil conditions present, 
with clear-cut ideas as to the best cultural methods to follow, and 
with the knowledge that the best of markets is at our door, the 
selection of undesirable varieties may from the very start spell 
ultimate disaster and make all the difference between a profitable 
or a profitless business. Were there but few varieties available for 
selection and were the behavior of these varieties uniformly the 
same in different localities, and under various environments and 
in different soil types, this question would be simplified; but the 
fact is altogether too apparent that varieties are amazingly unstable 
in their behavior and the most profitable variety in one location 
may prove worthless or of only mediocre value elsewhere. 



98 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Of all the small fruits, the strawberry lends itself most readily 
to the rapid increase of varieties and catalogs are overburdened 
with long lists of kinds described and often illustrated in such glow- 
ing words and colors that the novice in despair would fain swallow 
the whole list, did space permit. The multiplicity of varieties is 
apparent on every hand. Fletcher, in his recent work on " North 
American Varieties of Strawberries" lists nearly 1900 variety names 
and some of our largest small-fruit nurserymen in their 1916 
catalogs offer to supply growers with their choice from over 80 
different kinds. 

Manifestly, it is impossible for growers to test all varieties claim- 
ing attention. What then, are the guideposts to indicate the route 
to travel in making an intelligent selection? First, the purpose in 
view must be clear cut; whether for home or for commercial use; 
for canning factory or for local or more remote markets; the 
requirements of each market must be understood and the varieties 
selected should most nearly fit such requirements. Second, we 
must have, in the determination of varieties to grow, some knowl- 
edge of the comparative habits of both plant and fruit and should 
keep in mind some idea of the qualifications which go to make up an 
ideal variety. To be sure, no variety is perfect and the kinds grown 
are characterized by imperfections as well as by perfections. 
Doubtless no two growers would fully agree on all the qualifications 
which must be considered in the ideal strawberry because of differ- 
ent points of view and because of personal notions and tastes. 
Most of us, however, can fully agree on the most important factors 
which must be present in considering the ideal variety. 

Plants of the ideal variety must of course be true to name. All 
are agreed on this, yet many a plant has fallen from grace on this 
one point alone. They should be possessed of reasonable health, 
vigor, and sturdiness, with no hint of weakness or lack of vitality, 
should multiply to such an extent as to fill all the space allotted, 
leaving no bare spots, yet should not encroach one upon another 
so as to become too crowded, and should mature their fruit at the 
time desired and in abundance. The flowers should preferably be 
perfect, although we have some excellent imperfect-flowering kinds, 
should not open too early in exposed localities, and should be well 
supplied with an abundance of pollen so that under favorable 



STRAWBERRY CULTURE 99 

conditions pollination carried on mostly by insects may proceed 
rapidly. Fruit stems should not be too short, and should be 
sufficiently stocky to aid somewhat in keeping the berries off the 
ground. The calyx should not be over large or of an unattractive 
color. The berries should be of good size, which is retained fairly 
well throughout the season, the shape pleasing in its beauty of 
form, and the color should tempt the eye at first sight, neither too 
light nor too dark but distinctly lively, bright, and clear, not green- 
tipped at the apex. The berries should be sufficiently firm for the 
purpose grown and should not reach the table in a mussy condition. 
Most important of all, the flesh characters should combine a com- 
mingling of pleasant aroma, delightful richness of agreeable flavor, 
abundant juice, and an entire lack of toughness, astringency, or 
insipidness. Such a combination of qualities forming just the 
right mixture of sweetness and acidity, should certainly tempt the 
appetite of the most fastidious palate. 

As already has been suggested, tastes differ; some want an acid 
berry; others a sweet, mild berry; the point of view lacks uni- 
formity and we all have our pet notions as to what constitutes 
perfection; yet it seems certain that most strawberry growers can 
fully agree on the importance and desirability of all these qualities 
just enumerated and the different varieties vary so widely in flavor 
and quality that even the most fastidious may find a variety suited 
to their particular taste. 

The question of what to plant has not been fully answered. 
One solution to the question is by a careful study of the varieties 
in the immediate locality, selecting only such kinds that have by 
past experience proved their value and adaptation in that neigh- 
borhood. A second method is by trial of a few plants before 
planting largely to any little known variety. The test plat should 
be a regular feature of the strawberry grower and the newer and 
more promising kinds should be tested and their local value deter- 
mined before planting commercially. 

Brief mention has been made of a class of varieties that would 
extend the strawberry season through the fall months. Such 
kinds are designated as "Fall-bearing" varieties, and have created 
considerable discussion during recent years. It is true that a 
selection from the score or more of such kinds will make this fruit 



100 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



available throughout August, September, and October, and there 
will be little trouble in supplying our tables at that time. If, 
however, it is proposed to set such plants extensively for commercial 
purposes, the writer suggests that moderation be exercised in the 
first plantings and that the acreage be enlarged only as the success 
of the previous plantings warrant. 

Thus far, no varieties have been listed, and it is with hesitation 
that any names are given because of the fact that the most valuable 
kinds in one place may be worthless in some other locality. There 
are, however, a number of varieties which have made good in one 
part or another of New York State, although this fact has no 
bearing on their behavior in the Bay State. Many of them are 
old varieties with an established reputation, while others are 
among the more recent kinds; the following list is therefore only 
suggestive : 

Amanda Excelsior 

Barry more Gandy 

Bederwood Glen Mary 

Belt Golden Gate 

Brandywine i Good Luck 

Chesapeake Indiana 

Columbia Monroe 

Dunlap Marshall 



Mascot 

Michel 

Ozark 

Prolific 

Rough Rider 

Sample 

Stevens 

Williams. 



Fall-bearing Kinds. 
Americus Francis Progressive 



Superb. 



In conclusion. This discussion, incomplete yet already too long, 
must be brought to a close. An effort has been made to set forth 
some of the essentials of strawberry growing, the observance or 
non-observance of which make or mar the final results. A success- 
ful grower cannot run his business by rule of thumb. Ways and 
means will vary from year to year to meet new conditions of climate, 
of season, and of markets. Strawberry growing is intensive 
farming; halfway measures cannot bring the results desired. The 
fruit itself as a basis of work is of highest rank, and recalls the old 



STRAWBERRY CULTURE 101 

saying, "Doubtless God could have made a better berry, but 
doubtless he never did," and with the many varieties at our disposal, 
and with a better knowledge of their adaptabilities, intelligent 
effort cannot fail to supply our tables with fruit most acceptable 
to boih sight and taste. 



CRANBERRY CULTURE. 
By Marcus L. Urann, Boston. 



Abstract of lecture delivered before the Society, with stereopticon 
illustrations, March 10, 1917. 



Within a very few months the people of the United States will 
be considering, as never before, their food supplies. Not only in 
terms of great producers of grain and large special crops, but the 
question of food will be brought down more directly to the individ- 
ual and he will be endeavoring to solve the problem of how he can 
himself produce some of his foods by utilizing his back yard or 
other small areas of land which w T ill be open to his cultivation. 
One of the first questions confronting him is the selection of his 
crops. It is a rule that we should raise what we can cheaper than 
we can buy and buy from others what they can produce cheaper 
than ourselves. Now I presume we all want cranberries. 

First, because of their food value, composed as they are of ele- 
ments which our body needs and which will be of increasing value 
the plainer our general diet may become. For instance, tough 
and other poor quality of meats are rendered tender and more 
palatable cooked or eaten with cranberries. Then, too, they are 
an economical food there being no waste in cores or skins and 
very little labor required in preparation. We want them, too, 
because of their medicinal value. We are informed that cran- 
berries contain predigested acids easily assimilated, acting directly 
on the red corpuscles in the blood. 

Therefore desiring cranberries, the next question is whether or 
not we should produce or purchase them, this to be determined by 
the conditions under which they can successfully be grown. 

The common sw T amp cranberry, known to botanists by the name 
of " Vaccinium macrocaripon" is found native in almost every state 
in the Union and in parts of Canada. All economic plants show a 
preference for certain soil and climatic conditions and none is more 

103 



104 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

exacting in this regard than the cranberry, easily and successfully 
grown on congenial soils, it is a failure under adverse conditions. 
The successful cultivation h?s been practically limited to Massa- 
chusetts, New Jersey, and Wisconsin, about two-thirds of the total 
crop coming from Massachusetts and these grown almost exclu- 
sively on Cape Cod, where the economic conditions seem to Jbe 
peculiarly adapted to this particular fruit. 

History. The first attempts at cultivation of cranberries in 
this country were made on Cape Cod about the year 1816. The 
general cultivation, however, does not date back further than the 
year 1850. The development since that time has been rapid until 
today there are in Massachusetts some 12,000 acres. 

Necessary conditions. In locating a cranberry bog the first 
question, of course, is the soil, which should be of a peaty or alluvial 
nature, the decomposition of which has not reached a stage which 
will prevent the water percolating freely through it. The next 
requisite is drainage, which should be ample to allow the surface 
of the water to be kept at least two feet below the surface of the 
bog under any and all conditions. There must be an abundant 
water supply with the necessary reservoir privileges, providing 
protection from frost and insects. This water is used also in the 
proper development of the fruit itself. There must be an ample 
supply of sand easily accessible. The bog should be so located 
as to have a circulation of air and to be out of natural frost veins. 
After selecting a swamp with these necessary conditions the first 
step in preparation is: 

Clearing. Some of the swamps on Cape Cod are covered with 
what is called brown brush, a swamp bush growing from two to 
six feet high. Many of the swamps, however, are covered with a 
heavy growth of pine, maple, and cedar trees, all of which must 
be removed, both the trees and the stumps to at least six inches 
below the finished grade of the bog. These trees are used for 
wood or lumber. After which we come to the second step. 

Turfing. Which is removing all surface vegetation, cutting the 
turf into squares and turning upside down. It sounds very easy, 
but no part of bog building requires more skill and judgment, for 
in this turf are the seeds, roots, and plants, which, if not properly 
handled, will spring up for many years afterwards entailing a heavy 
expense, as well as cause damage to the young bog. 



CRANBERRY CULTURE 105 

Ditching. After turfing, the drainage ditches are excavated, the 
size and number of which depend upon the area to be drained, the 
number of springs, and density of soil. They usually consist of a 
large ditch through the middle of the swamp and lateral ditches 
running at right angles from this to the upland; these latter are 
generally about two feet wide and deep. A ditch must entirely 
surround the bog at the point where the peaty soil of the swamp 
meets the sandy soil of the upland. This is to carry off the surface 
water and is a protection from insects crawling on to the bog from 
the upland. These ditches not only drain the swamp, permitting 
air circulation and chemical changes, which will furnish food supply 
to the plants, but also are necessary in case of flowage. 

Dikes. The next step is to divide the entire swamp into sections 
according to its topography. It is advisable to have a swamp 
divided into sections of comparatively a few acres. This is accom- 
plished by a system of dikes located according to the natural con- 
ditions of the bog. They are usually constructed by laying up 
two parallel walls of turf the desired distance apart, this turf 
having been cut from the surface of the swamp and then filling in 
between the two walls with sand from the upland. In locating 
these dikes it is necessary to have the area to be flowed by a given 
dike as nearly level as possible. 

Grading. Each area separated by a dike is then graded, for which 
a special tool much like a hoe but heavier and sharp is used. The 
high places are cut down and the low places filled in, thus permitting 
flooding with a minimum supply of water in the shortest time, as 
well as an even development of the fruit. 

Sanding. We must then cover the graded area with clean sand 
free from clay, loam, or seeds to a depth of from four to six inches 
according to the nature of the soil. This, as all other work on a 
cranberry bog, must be done by hand. The usual practice is with 
wheelbarrows over moveable planks. Care must be taken not to 
. tread this sand into the peat and also to spread it to a uniform depth. 

Planting. Seeds are used for originating new varieties. Mead- 
ows are established by planting cuttings from ten to fifteen inches 
long laid flat on the ground from ten to twenty inches apart each 
way. Then with a dibble placed in the middle of the cutting force 
the plant doubling upon itself through the sand into the peat. 



106 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

The vines will then show above the sand one or two inches. The 
cuttings are obtained from vigorous plants by mowing a portion of a 
producing bog. A fully developed plant is about six inches high, 
the vines running along on the ground very similar to strawberries. 

Time to plant. The best results have been obtained by planting 
during the months of April and May. The plants will then get a 
good start before the dry weather of the summer and the fourth year 
afterwards the first real crop may be expected. After this we gen- 
erally expect a crop of fifty barrels per acre. 

Cultivating. During the four years after the bog is built a large 
amount of work is involved to keep the area weeded and free from 
grass or other foreign growth. It is also necessary to clean out the 
ditches by the third year any way, as their banks have not been 
fully vined over and consequently the wash and caving will often 
fill them. 

After the vines have completely covered the bog there is little 
trouble from weeds or other foreign growth. 

Pruning. Each year, after harvesting, the bog is pruned with a 
razor-toothed rake removing all loose runners and leaving the vines 
in condition to produce uprights upon which the fruit grows. 

Resanding. About every other year it is desirable to spread upon 
the surface of the bog a thin layer of sand. This also must be done 
by hand, unless as some growers and under certain conditions, 
may make the application on the ice in the winter. 

Management. The cranberry industry is one of the most highly 
developed fruit specialties in the country. To be successful it 
requires years of experience and study and the demands in this 
respect are increasing every year. 

Harvesting. Formerly cranberries were harvested by hand. 
Since the industry has expanded however, certain devices have 
been invented, only a few of which have stood the test of time and 
experience. 

The month of September is really the harvesting month. It may 
begin in August and some times extends into October. The fruit 
as harvested is placed in ventilated boxes usually containing one 
bushel, in which they are carried to the packing house and there 
allowed' to remain until properly cooled, after which they are put 
through certain machines for removing leaves, vines, soft and 



CRANBERRY CULTURE 107 

injured fruit. From these machines they pass to belts or tables, 
to be picked over by hand. From here they pass into barrels 
containing one hundred pounds. 

During this same time the berries are graded according to size, 
color, quality, etc. 

Marketing. While there are still some independent growers who 
sell their own berries depending on locating their own markets, 
or through commission men, the larger part of the berries are sold 
through a cooperative association of the growers. The different 
grades of berries are given brands, which brand name indicates 
certain specifications in size, color, quality, and variety. This 
cooperative organization does the work at actual cost to the grower, 
maintaining offices and in all ways carries on the business as usually 
followed by cooperative associations. It has proven very successful 
and a great benefit to the business. 

Formerly there was little care on the part of the consumers as to 
the kind of berries received, all cranberries being alike to them. 
In recent years, however, the markets are growing more and more 
particular demanding car loads of an even grade, quality, and pack 
of fruit. 

Insect enemies. There are three classes of insects, those that 
attack the fruit, the vine, and the root, to combat which the main 
reliance is upon water. A bog that has no water must depend 
upon spraying with poisons. 

In conclusion let me express the hope that the time is not far 
distant when Massachusetts will appreciate more than she does now, 
the importance of this highly specialized industry within her bor- 
ders. The next ten years should reach a crop of five hundred 
thousand barrels a year and an average selling price of six dollars 
per barrel should mean three million dollars annually and nearly 
all of it is money coming into the State, for this is the one big crop 
in Massachusetts which is exported. A cheap and healthful food, 
which should be used more liberally in every family because of its 
food and medicinal value, its economy and the many uses to which 
it can be put, for there are few foods which lend themselves to so 
universal a use in cooking as cranberries. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



FOR THE YEAR 1917 



PART II 




PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

BOSTON 

NINETEEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTEEN 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




assacjjmtts Jptfrfialtoral jSratj 



FOE THE YEAR 1917 



PART II 




BOSTON 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY 

NINETEEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTEEN 



Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 



1917. 



The Transactions of the Society are issued annually in two parts 
under the direction of the Committee on Lectures and Publications. 

Communications relating to the objects of the Society, its publi- 
cations, exhibitions, and membership, may be addressed to William 
P. Rich, Secretary, Horticultural Hall, No. 300 Massachusetts 
Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. 



Fred A. Wilson 

Chairman 
Leonard Barron 
Nathn'l T. Kidder 



Committee 

on 

Lectures and 

Publications. 



no 



CONTENTS 



Annual Reports for the Year 1917 

Report of the Board of Trustees . . . . .115 
Report of the Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions . 119 
Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers . .121 
Report of the Committee on Fruits .... 143 
Report of the Committee on Vegetables . . . 157 

Report of the Committee on Gardens . . . .165 
Report of the Committee on Children's Gardens . .167 
Report of the Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture 171 
Report of the Secretary and Librarian . . .173 



Report of the Treasurer 
The Annual Meeting, November 17, 1917 

Necrology, 1917 

Officers, Committees, and Members, 1917 



177 
185 
189 
193 



in 



ANNUAL REPORTS FOR THE YEAR 1917. 



113 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




muthmdH "§mtim\tmtii # mt% 

1917, PART II. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
FOR THE YEAR 1917. 

The Board of Trustees of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society presents herewith to the members a summary of the busi- 
ness transacted at its meetings during the year 1917. 

January 8. Walter Hunnewell was appointed Treasurer of the 
Society and William P. Rich Secretary, Librarian, and Superin- 
tendent of the Building for the current year. James Wheeler was 
appointed Superintendent of Exhibitions for the year with a salary 
of $300.00. 

Appropriations were voted as follow: 

For the library $400.00, in addition to the income of the French 
and Farlow Funds, and the unexpended balance of the appropria- 
tion for the previous year. For lectures for the year 1918, $500.00, 
to include the income of the John Lewis Russell Fund. 

It was voted to refer the matter of appropriations for prizes and 
gratuities for the year 1918 to the Advisory Committee with 
power. 

The President spoke of the desirability of increasing the member- 
ship of the Society and it was voted to refer the matter to the 
Advisory Committee for such action as it may deem best. 

Mr. Farquhar suggested the importance of announcing the 

115 



116 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

exhibitions of the Society a year or two in advance and said that 
the matter might safely be referred to the Advisory Committee 
to prepare the schedule of exhibitions accordingly. On motion 
of Mr. Farquhar it was voted to refer the preparation of the schedule 
to the Advisory Committee. 

Mr. Allen reported briefly on the preparations for the outdoor 
exhibition of June next. He stated that contracts had been given 
out for construction purposes and the necessary tents engaged. 
Also that the John Waterer Sons Co. of London had offered to 
send 250 tubs of rhododendrons for this exhibition. It was voted 
that the custom duties on this importation be paid by the Society. 

October 11. A vote of thanks was tendered to Mr. Allen for 
his services on the occasion of the June Outdoor Flower Show. 

A communication from William Robinson of Sussex, England, 
was read, expressing his thanks for the award of the George Robert 
White Medal of Honor for the year 1916. 

A communication from the American Peony Society was pre- 
sented, offering a Silver Medal for the largest and best collection 
of peonies at the Peony Exhibition of 1918. It was voted to 
accept the offer with thanks and to refer it to the Committee on 
Prizes and Exhibitions to be listed in the 1918 Schedule. 

A letter from the Secretary of the American Dahlia Society 
was read, in reference to the schedule of prizes to be offered at the 
joint exhibition of September, 1918. It was voted, on motion of 
Mr. Roland, that each society publish its own schedule but the 
schedule of the visiting society must conform in its rules and 
regulations to those of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

A notice from the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture 
was read, stating that incorporated agricultural societies were 
allowed to distribute $400.00 of the state bounty of $1000.00 in 
premiums to children and youths under eighteen years of age for 
horticultural and agricultural exhibits. 

It was voted that an appropriation not exceeding $400.00 be 
made for the 1918 exhibition of the products of children's gardens. 

The special committee appointed by the President to present 
a list of the various committees of the Society for the ensuing year 
reported as follows: 



REPORT OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES 117 



Committees for 1918. 

Finance: — Walter Hunnewell, Chairman, Arthur F. Estabrook, 

Stephen M. Weld. 
Membership: — Thomas Allen, George E. Barnard, Charles W. 

Moseley, Thomas Roland, Richard M. Saltonstall. 
Prizes and Exhibitions : — James Wheeler, Chairman, Robert 

Cameron, William N. Craig, Duncan Finlayson, T. D. 

Hatfield. 
Plants and Flowers : — William Anderson, Chairman, Arthur H. 

Fewkes, S. J. Goddard, Donald McKenzie, William 

Sim. 
Fruits: — Edward B. Wilder, Chairman, William N. Craig, Isaac 

H. Locke, James Methven. 
Vegetables : — John L. Smith, Chairman, Edward Parker, William 

C. Rust. 
Gardens: — R. M. Saltonstall, Chairman, John S. Ames, David 

R. Craig, William Nicholson, Charles Sander, Charles 

H. Tenney. 
Library: — C. S. Sargent, Chairman, E. B. Dane, N. T. Kidder. 
Lectures and Publications: — F. A. Wilson, Chairman, Thomas 

Allen, J. K. M. L. Farquhar. 
Children's Gardens: — Henry S. Adams, Chairman, Dr. Harris 

Kennedy, Mrs W. Rodman Peabody, Miss Margaret 

A. Rand, James Wheeler. 
It was voted that the list as presented by the committee be 
accepted as the committees of the Society for the ensuing year. 

William P. Rich, 

Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PRIZES AND 
EXHIBITIONS FOR THE YEAR 1917. 

By James Wheeler, Chairman. 



The exhibitions of the year 1917 have been very satisfactory, 
the quality excellent, the competition good, and the public interest 
well sustained. 

The Spring Flower Show in March will go on record as the best 
ever held by the.Society. Every available space was filled and the 
quality of the exhibits was above the standard. It was very 
gratifying to the officers of the Society to have the hearty cooper- 
ation of the owners of large private estates, the commercial growers, 
and the retail florists. The fruit and vegetable growers also put 
forth special effort to make their exhibits as attractive as possible. 
The public appreciated this excellent show and the attendance was 
larger than at any previous exhibition. 

Your committee prepared the 1918 Schedule with prizes amount- 
ing to $8500.00, introducing many new features. While we wish 
to keep up the high standard of excellence of standard varieties, 
we desire to stimulate more interest in new fruits, vegetables, 
plants, and flowers. 

Owing to the reduction of income and increased expenses the 
Advisory Committee recommended the cutting down of exhibitions 
and prizes. After carefully considering the situation we agreed 
that there was a call for every member of the Society to cooperate 
with our Government and to do our duty as a Society. The 
Committee, therefore, decided to have the exhibitions for the year 
1918 as originally planned but to eliminate all money prizes, and 
further, to charge an admission fee to all the exhibitions beginning 
with the Spring Show, the net receipts to be given to the Red 
Cross or other war relief work. 

We trust this action will meet with the hearty approval of the 

119 



120 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



members and that every one will make a special effort to make the 
exhibitions of 1918 the best in the history of the Society. 



James Wheeler 

John K. M. L. Farquhar 

Duncan Finlayson 

T. D. Hatfield 

Thomas Roland 



Committee 

on Prizes 

and Exhibitions. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND 
FLOWERS FOR THE YEAR 1917. 

By William Anderson, Chairman. 



On January 13, S. J. Goddard was awarded a Silver Medal for 
Carnation Doris. A First Class Certificate of Merit was awarded 
to F. Dorner & Sons Co. for Laddie, a large flesh-pink, superior 
to existing varieties of that color. The same firm also exhibited 
Rosalie, a fine dark-pink of perfect form for which a Certificate of 
Merit was awarded. Fine spikes of Calanthe were exhibited by 
Duncan Finlayson. 

February 3. Well grown Begonia Gloire de Lorraine and 
Primula sinensis were on exhibition, also a sport from Lorraine, 
large flower, light-pink color, tinged with salmon. A Silver Medal 
was awarded to George Melvin for a remarkably well-flowered 
plant of Dendrobium nobile virginale. 

February 10, A. W. Preston, J. L. Smith, gardener, exhibited a 
very large flowered Brasso-Laelio-Cattleya, Seaforth Highlander, 
which received a Silver Medal. 

The Spring Flower Show which opened on March 1st was one 
of the most successful ever held in Boston. In addition to the 
high quality of the exhibits, it was exceptional in its artistic arrange- 
ment. In the plant exhibits the outstanding features were the 
fine group of Acacias from Thomas Roland and the groups of 
Orchids from F. J. Dolansky, Julius Roehrs Co., and E. B. Dane. 
Many valuable and rare hybrids were included in the two latter 
groups while that of Mr. Dolansky was a massive group of especially 
well-flowered plants. The bulb displays were extensive and of 
high quality; especially fine were the new varieties of Darwin 
Tulips and Narcissus in the exhibits from the Weld garden and A. 
W. Preston. The Flemish garden arranged by R. and J. Farquhar 
& Co. which contained masses of bulbs, flowering shrubs, Jasminum 
yrimulinum and tall Cedars, all tastefully and effectively placed, 

121 



122 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

made an interesting and attractive feature of the show. This 
exhibit was awarded a Gold Medal. 

The group of flowering and foliage plants, and of forced shrubs, 
Azaleas, Ericas, Clyclamen, Schizanthus, and Cinerarias, were 
notable features of the show and were of high quality. A Silver 
Medal was awarded to William Sim for collection of Auriculas, 
also a Silver Medal for hybrid Polyanthas. Thomas Roland 
received a Silver Medal for superior culture of Ericas and a similar 
award went to F. Dorner & Sons Co., for Carnation Laddie. 

Awards of Honorable Mention were made to Charles Holbrow 
for his new seedling Rose, Christy Miller X President Taft; and to 
Charles S. Strout for seedling Carnation Snow White. Certificate 
of Merit was awarded to T. D. Hatfield for Rhododendron lutescens, 
a small-flowered yellow Rhododendron from Western China and 
to A. N. Pierson for Climbing Rose, Elizabeth Zeigler. A. N. 
Pierson was first for new foliage plant with Adiantum gloriosum 
Lemkcsii, an improved gloriosum. Splendid vases of Richmond, 
Ophelia, Hadley, and Mrs. Bayard Thayer Roses were exhibited 
in the competitive classes. The winning varieties of Carnations 
were Pink Sensation, Pocahontas, Matchless, Benora, Doris, and 
Bella Washburn. The retail florists' displays were extensive and 
special prizes were awarded to Penn the Florist, H. R. Comley, 
Houghton Gorney Co., and the Boston Cut Flower Company. 

Iris Show, May 26. On account of the backward season, verjr 
few flowers were staged at this exhibition. Miss Grace Sturtevant 
of Wellesley had a display of dwarf Iris and spring flowers; A. W. 
Preston, Narcissus; and Victor Heurlin, display of Narcissus and 
Tulips. 

On June 19 members of the committee visited the Glen Road 
Iris gardens, Wellesley Farms, and made the following awards : 

Iris Shekinah, (O X Celeste) X Self, a soft pale lemon yellow, 
deepening to the center, beard orange, the first yellow of Pallida 
type and height 3 feet, Silver Medal. 

Iris Empire, (Monsignor X Aurea-) Empire Yellow, 27 inches, 
with the excellent growth and shape of Monsignor, Certificate of 
Merit. 

Iris Rosette, (Pallida X (Pallida, X Jeanne d'Arc) reddish 
violet with a strong tendency for both standards and falls to lie 
upon the horizontal, 3 feet, Certificate of Merit. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS 123 

Iris True Charm (Oriflamme X Count de St. Clair) purest white 
with delicate fringe of blue-lavender, Style arms lavender, 3 feet, 
Certificate of Merit. 

Iris Reverie, (Ann Leslie X Self) standards pale lilac, falls solid 
auricula-purple, 30 inches, Honorable Mention. 

Iris Rose Madder, (Hector X Shelford Chieftain) Standards 
argyle-purple, falls velvety dahlia-purple, a 40 inch flexuous 
stem. Honorable Mention. 

Iris Tangiers, (Oriflamme X Maori King) standards, light 
cinnamon-drab, falls black pansy-violet, 3 feet, Honorable Men- 
tion. 

The Rose and Peony Show was postponed from June 23 to June 
29. Peonies predominated and were of good quality. T. C. 
Thurlow's Sons of West Newbury had the largest exhibit which 
included 2000 blooms representing over 85 varieties including a 
few seedlings which had never been exhibited before. A Silver 
Medal was awarded this display. A similar award was given the 
Wellesley Nurseries for a collection of herbaceous Peonies. 

E. J. Shaylor had on exhibition a very fine collection of Peony 
seedlings for which the following awards were made : 

Wilton Lockwood, very large bloom of the semi-rose type, 
with very broad guard petals. The center petals are loosely 
arranged and intermixed with golden stamens. The center is 
prominently marked with a number of unusually broad carpeloides 
tipped with dark carmine-crimson. The general color of the flower 
is delicate rose with lighter tips to the petals. Awarded Certificate 
of Merit. 

Frances Shaylor, large bloom of the semi-rose type with large 
guard petals and broad center petals. Those of the extreme center 
are surrounded with a row of golden stamens. Color a beautiful 
cream-white. Awarded Certificate of Merit. 

Secretary Fewkes, a very large bloom of the rose type, with 
shell-like guard petals and collar of white staminodes. Center 
petals of equal length with the guard petals, making a very full, 
loosely arranged bloom. Color bluish-white. Awarded Certificate 
of Merit. 

William F. Turner, large bloom of semi-rose type. Guards and 
center petals of same length with golden stamens in center. Color 
very deep, glowing crimson. Awarded Certificate of Merit. 



124 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Jessie Shaylor, semi-double type of bloom, with broad guard 
petals and loosely arranged center petals of same length, intermixed 
with golden stamens and occasional flecks of crimson on the car- 
peloides. Color white with tinge of salmon. Awarded Certifi- 
cate of Merit. 

No. 65, very large bloom of the bomb type, with broad reflexing 
guard petals, full to the center and making a very deep flower. 
The guard petals are hydrangea-pink, surrounded with a collar 
of blush-white and tipped with a crown of same color as the guard 
petals. Awarded Certificate of Merit. 

Shaylor' s Dream, semi-double type, nearly single. Guard petals 
long and eventually reflexing, pure white with large bunch of yellow 
stamens in center. Awarded Honorable Mention. 

Alma, Japanese type, guard petals large with a prominent center 
of long staminodes with hooked ends, light yellow in color with 
golden tips. Well developed blooms show a prominent crown 
of pure white carpeloides with green blotches. Awarded Honorable 
Mention. 

No. 35, semi-rose type bloom, with broad shell-like guard petals, 
with collar of broad and crimped petaloides, growing narrower 
toward the center which is composed of yellow stamens intermixed 
with a few very small petals. Color is pure satiny-white with a 
slight ivory tone. Awarded Honorable Mention. 

A Certificate of Merit was awarded T. N. Cook for Climbing 
Rose, Bonnie Prince. In the competitive Rose classes the following 
varieties were the winners : Hybrid Perpetuals, Frau Karl Druschki, 
Ulrich Brunuer, Captain Hayward, Margaret Dickson, Julius 
Margotten, White Baroness, John Hooper, Jean Liabaud, Duke 
of Edinburgh, Baroness Rothschild, Mrs. John Laing, Clio. Hybrid 
Tea Roses, Richmond, Lyons, Mrs. Charles Russell, Caroline 
Testout, Lady Ashtown, Countess Folkstone, Beaute de Lyon, 
William Shean, Mrs. Aaron Ward, Mary Countess of Ilchester, 
George Dickson, General McArthur, Augustus Hartman, Ophelia, 
Carola. 

On July 7-8 the Sweet Pea Show was held in conjunction with 
the Sweet Pea Society of America. While the competition was 
not so strong as in former years the quality ruled high. Some 
fine new sorts were exhibited the best of which were the following: 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS 125 

Surprise, salmon, Edward Gondy, pink, Miriam Beaver, scarlet, 
Bartons Victory, lavender, Hope, vermilion pink, Hercules, cerise. 
Among the miscellaneous exhibits were fine collections of Iris 
Kaempferi from Iristhorpe Farm and wild flowers from Albert 
Davidson. F. W. Fletcher was awarded a Silver Medal for a 
fine collection of hybrid Delphiniums. The varieties Lassell 
Blue and a Belladonna hybrid were awarded Certificates of Merit. 

July 21, the Bayard Thayer Estate at Lancaster exhibited 
Lilium Thayerae one of E. H. Wilson's new lilies from China. 
This was the first time this lily had been exhibited in this country. 
It is perfectly hardy, the flowers are recurved, of a rich orange 
color, and the petals are covered with small black spots, the stem 
strong and wiry, the best spike shown carrying 21 flowers and buds. 
It was awarded a Silver Medal. 

The Gladiolus Show which opened on August 11, was not as 
large nor was the quality of the blooms as good as in former years, 
due no doubt to the excessively hot dry weather previous to the 
exhibition. Some of the winning varieties were Frau Elise Bergen, 
Loveliness, Goliath, Joe Colman, Myrtle, Charlemagne, Moonlight, 
Austrasia, Sphinx, Queen Wilhelmina, Elizabeth Kurtz, and Murillo. 
There was a good display of Phlox, some of the best of which were 
Maid Marion, Stella's Choice, Argon, La Feu de Mond, Paul 
Carpentier, Cameron, Africa, Elizabeth Campbell, Marquis de 
St. Paul. Special awards were Silver Medal to C. F. Fairbanks 
for Gladiolus primulinus hybrids; Silver Medal to the Boston Cut 
Flower Co., for an artistic arrangement of cut Gladioli in baskets 
and vases; Certificate of Merit to A. E. Kunderd for seedling 
Gladiolus Lily White. 

Dahlia Show Sept. 8-9. The Dahlias exhibited at this show 
were of fine quality, although less numerous than usual. J. K. 
Alexander made an extensive exhibit of cut blooms, embracing 
all classes. The Boston Cut Flower Co. was awarded a Silver 
Medal for an artistic display of Dahlias and other flowers. Thomas 
Cogger received a First Class Certificate of Merit for Gladiolus 
Mrs. Keur, a very large flower, color deep pink. Old Town 
Nurseries exhibited a collection of seedling Gladioli which was 
awarded Honorable Mention. J. K. Alexander had a splendid dis- 
play of his Colossal Dahlias. The Colossal type includes all the 



126 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

giant-flowering Dahlias, intermediate between the broad, flat- 
petaled Decorative Dahlia and the common quilled Show Dahlia. 

December 22. John L. Smith, gardener for A. W. Preston, was 
awarded a Gold Medal for Brasso-Cattleya, A. W. Preston (C. 
Enid X Brassavola Digbyana). 

The pedigree of this orchid is as follows: 

Cattleya Mossiae X C. gigas = Cattleya Enid. 

Cattleya Enid X Brassavola Digbyana = Cattleya A. W. Preston. 

The plants carried one flower and two buds. The flower is 
eight inches across and the labellum is four inches deep. Color 
rosy-lavender, throat purple veined, and shaded with yellow; 
staminode, cream white. 



William Anderson 
Arthur H. Fewkes 



Committee 



S. J. Goddard \ on 

Donald McKenzie Plants and Flowers. 
Arthur E. Griffin 



MASS. HORT. SOC.,1917 



PLATE 1 




Brasso-Cattleya A. W. Preston 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS 127 

PRIZES AWARDED FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 

1917. 

January 13. 

John A. Lowell Fund. 

Antirrhinums. — One vase of twelve spikes: 

Mrs. C. G. Weld, Weld Pink, $3. 
Carnation. — Any new variety of merit: 

S. J. Goddard, Doris, Silver Medal. 
Orchids. — Calanthes, twelve spikes: 

Weld Garden, $5. 

February 3. 
John Allen French Fund. 

Begonia Gloire de Lorraine. — Six plants: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $10. 
Primula sinensis. — Six plants: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $6; 2d, A. M. Davenport, $3. 

Spring Exhibition. 

March 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25. 

Acacias. — Group of plants in bloom not exceeding 200 sq. ft.: 
1st, Thomas Roland, $100. 
Three plants: 

1st, Thomas Roland, $25. 
One plant: 

Thomas Roland, $10. 
Amaryllis. — Twelve plants: 

1st, Mrs. J. M. Sears, $20. 
Astilbes. — Collection not exceeding 100 sq. ft., not less than six varieties: 

1st, W. W. Edgar Co., $50. 
Azaleas. — Indica, group not exceeding 200 sq. ft.: 

1st, A. M. Davenport, $100; 2d, W. W. Edgar Co., 
Three plants : 

1st, Miss Cornelia Warren, $20. 



128 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Chionodoxa. — Six 6 in. pans: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $5. 
Clivias (Imantophyllum) . — Four plants : 

1st, Faulkner Farm, $12. 
Cinerarias. — Grandiflora type, six plants: 

1st, Mrs. J. M. Sears, $15; 2d, E. A. Clark, $10. 
Six plants : 

Mrs. J. M. Sears, $5. 
Stellata type, six plants : 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $15; 2d, Mrs. Robert Saltonstall, $10. 
One plant: 

Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $5. 
Cyclamens. — Eight plants : 

1st, Mrs. Lester Leland, $25; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $15. 
Eight plants, in not exceeding 7 in. pots: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $20; 2d, Mrs. Lester Leland, $10. 
Cytisus. — Four plants: 

1st, Miss Cornelia Warren, $15. 
One plant: 

Miss Cornelia Warren, $5. 
Ericas. — Six plants: 

2d, Miss Cornelia Warren, $10. 
Freesias. — Six pots: 

1st, Mrs. C. G. Weld, $10; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $5. 
Galanthus (Snow Drops). — Six pots: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $5; 2d, A. W. Preston, $3. 
Grape Hyacinths. — Six pots: 

1st, A. W. Preston, $10; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $5. 
Hyacinths. — Twelve pots, three bulbs of one variety in each: 
1st, Weld Garden, $20; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $10. 
Six pots : 

1st, Weld Garden, $10. 
One pot, six bulbs of one distinct variety, Dark Blue or Purple : 

1st, Weld Garden, King of the Blues, $5; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, 
King of the Blues, $3. 
One pot, Light Blue: 

1st, Weld Garden, Queen of the Blues, $5; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, 
Enchantress, $3. 
One pot, Dark Pink or Red: 

1st, Weld Garden, La Victoire, $5; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, La Vic- 
toire, $3. 
One pot, Light Pink: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, Jacques, $5; 2d, Weld Garden, Gigantea, $3. 
One pot, Yellow: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, City of Haarlem, $5; 2d, Weld Garden, City 
of Haarlem, $3. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS 129 

One pot, White : 

1st, Weld Garden, La Grandesse, $5; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, La Gran- 
desse, $3. 
Hydrangeas. — Group to cover not exceeding 150 sq. ft.: 
1st, W. W. Edgar Co., $75; 2d, A. M. Davenport, $40. 
Two plants, two varieties: 

1st, A. M. Davenport, $15. 
One plant: 

A. M. Davenport, $10. 
Jonquils. — Six pots: 

1st, A. W. Preston, $10; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $5. 
Lilacs. — Six plants: 

1st, Faulkner Farm, $15; 2d, W. W. Edgar Co., $8. 
Lilies. — Group covering 50 sq. ft.: 

1st, W. W. Edgar Co., $50. 
Lily of the Valley. — Six pots: 

1st, Mrs. C. G. Weld, $6; 2d, A. W. Preston, $4. 
Marguerites. — Four plants: 

1st, Mrs. C. G. Weld, $12; 2d, Faulkner Farm, $6. 
One plant : 

Mrs. C. G. Weld, $5. 
Narcissi. — Large Trumpet, ten pots: 

1st, Weld Garden, $20; 2d, A. W. Preston, $10. 
Five pots: 

1st, A. W. Preston, $10; 2d, Weld Garden, $5. 
Short Trumpet, ten pots: 

1st, A. W.Preston, $15; 2d, Weld Garden, $10. 
Five pots: 

1st, A. W. Preston, $8; 2d, A. W. Preston, $4. 
One pot, any Double variety: 

1st, Weld Garden, $5; 2d, A. W. Preston, $3.' 
Orchids. — Group of plants arranged for effect: 

1st, F. J. Dolansky, $300 and Gold Medal; 2d, Julius Roehrs Co., $200 
and Silver Medal. 
Group arranged for effect (Commercial growers excluded) : 

1st, E. B. Dane, $100 and Gold Medal; 2d, Mrs. C. G. Weld, $65 and 
Silver Medal. 
Six plants, six varieties: 

1st, J. T. Butterworth, 
One plant: 

Miss Cornelia Warren, 
Palms. — Two Kentias: 
1 1st, Weld Garden, $15. 
Two Phoenix Roebellini: 
1st, Weld Garden, $15. 



130 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Primulas. — Acaulis, six plants: 

1st, William Sim, $6. 
Malacoides, eight plants: 

1st, Mrs. C. G. Weld, $10; 2d, A. E. Parsons, $5. 
Obconica, eight plants: 

1st, William Whitman, $10; 2d, Mrs. C. G. Weld, $5. 
Polyantha Hybrids, six plants: 

1st, William Sim, $6; 2d, Mrs. C. G. Weld, $4. 
Roses. — Rambler, one plant, Pink (Commercial growers excluded) : 

1st, Miss Cornelia Warren, Tausendschon, $10. 
Schizanthus. — Six plants: 

1st, E. S. Webster, $15; 2d, Miss Cornelia Warren, $10. 
One plant: 

Faulkner Farm, $5. 
Scilla campanulata. — Four pans: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $5. 
Tulips. — Single Early, twelve pans, twelve distinct varieties: 

1st, A. W. Preston, $20; 2d, Weld Garden, $10. 
Six pans, one distinct variety in each: 

1st, A. W. Preston, $10; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $5. 
One pan, Bicolor: 

1st, A. W. Preston, Cerise Gris-de-lin, $5. 
One pan, Pink: 

1st, A. W. Preston, Flamingo, $5; 2d, Weld Garden, Pink Beauty, $3. 
One pan, Pink and White: 

1st, A. W. Preston, Queen of the Netherlands, $5. 
One pan. Red: 

1st, A. W. Preston, Brilliant Star, $5; 2d, A. W. Preston, La Grandeur, 
$3. 
One pan, Red and Yellow: 

1st, A. W. Preston, Keizerkroon, $5. 
One pan, White : . 

1st, A. W. Preston, White Hawk, $5; 2d, Weld Garden, Joost Van 
Vondel, $3. 
One pan, Yellow: 

1st, A. W. Preston, Rising Sun, $5. 
Double, six pans, six distinct varieties: 

1st, Weld Garden, $10; 2d, A. W. Preston, $5. 
One pan, Pink: 

1st, Weld Garden, Murillo, $5; 2d, A. W. Preston, La Grandesse, $3. 
One pan, Red: 

1st, A. W. Preston, Vuurbaak, $5. 
One pan, Yellow: 

1st, A. W. Preston, Lady Godiva, $5. 
Darwin, twelve pans, one variety in each: 

1st, Weld Garden, $20. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS 131 

Hyacinths. — Six plants in one or more pots (For amateurs only) : 

1st, Miss M. A. Rand, Queen of the Pinks, $5; 2d, Miss M. A. Rand, 
Queen of the Blues, $3. 
Narcissi. — Twelve plants in one or more pots (For amateurs only) : 

1st, Miss M. A. Rand, King Alfred, $5; 2d, Miss M. A. Rand, Glory of 
Leiden, $3. 
Tulips. — Twelve plants in one or more pots (For amateurs only) : 

1st, Miss M. A. Rand, Vermilion Brilliant, $5; 2d, Miss M. A. Rand, 
White Joost Van Vondel, $3. 
Collection of Forced Bulbs. — To cover not more tharrl2 sq. ft. (For 
amateurs only) : 
1st, Miss M. A. Rand, $10; 2d, Miss M. A. Rand, $8. 
Artistic Display of Foliage and Flowering Plants. — To cover not 
exceeding 200 sq. ft.: 
1st, A. M. Davenport, $100; 2d, W. W. Edgar Co., $65. 
General Display of Spring Bulbous Plants. — Arranged for effect 
with foliage plants: 
1st, Weld Garden, $75; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $40. 
Collection of Forced Shrubs. — To cover 150 sq. ft. : 

1st, A. M. Davenport, $60, 2d, Faulkner Farm, $30. 
Hard-wooded Greenhouse Plants. — Group not exceeding 100 sq. ft. : 

1st, Mrs. C. G. Weld, $50; 2d, Miss Cornelia Warren, 
Any other Plant in Flower, not mentioned in this list: 

E. S. Webster, Gloriosa Rothschildiana, $8. 
Any New or Rare Plant in Flower: 

A. W. Preston, Laelio-Cattleya L. C. Black, $8. 
Any New or Rare Foliage Plant: 

Cromwell Gardens, Adiantum gloriosum Le?nkesii, $8 



Special Prizes Offered by Messrs. Zandbergen Bros., Valkenburg, Holland. 

Collection of Bulbs. — (For private gardeners only): 
Weld Garden, $20. 

Society's Prizes. 

Antirrhinums. — One vase, twenty-five spikes, one or more varieties: 
1st, W. R. Nicholson, Phelps White, $8; 2d, Mrs. C. G. Weld, mixed 
varieties, $4. 
Camellias. — Collection of twelve blooms: 

1st, Mrs. J. M. Sears, $5; 2d, A. Mathews, $3. 
Carnations. — Vase of one hundred cut blooms of one variety, with foliage: 
1st, A. A. Pembroke, Pink Sensation, $15; 2d, Littlefield & Wyman, 
Abington, $10. 



132 MASSACHUSETTS HOKTICULTUKAL SOCIETY 

Fifty blooms, any named Crimson variety: 

1st, J. W. Minott Co., Pocahontas, $8. 
Fifty blooms, Dark Pink: 

1st, A. A. Pembroke, Rosette, $8; 2d, Littlefield & Wyman, Miss 
Theo, $4. 
Fifty blooms, Light Pink: 

1st, A. A. Pembroke, Pink Sensation, $8; 2d, A. A. Pembroke, Pink 
Delight, $4. 
Fifty blooms, Scarlet: 

1st, Littlefield & Wyman, Belle Washburn, $8; 2d, A. A. Pembroke, 
Champion, $4. 
Fifty blooms, Variegated: 

1st, James Wheeler, Benora, $8; 2d, A. A. Pembroke, Benora, $4. 
Fifty blooms, White : 

1st, Strouts, Matchless, $8; 2d, Betty K. Farr, Matchless, $4. 
Fifty blooms, Yellow: 

1st, Betty K. Farr, Yellow Prince, $8. 
Twenty-five blooms, any undisseminated variety: 

1st, A. A. Pembroke, Seedling No. 10, $8; 2d, W. D. Howard, Bernice, 
$4. 
Twenty-five blooms, Pink (for private gardeners only) : 

1st, Mrs. Frederick Ayer, $5. 
Twenty-five blooms, Scarlet (for private gardeners only) : 

1st, Mrs. C. G. Weld, Beacon, $5; 2d, Mrs. Frederick Ayer, $3. 
Twenty-five blooms, Variegated (for private gardeners only): 

1st, W. H. Wellington, $5; 2d, N. S. Seavey, $3. 
Twenty-five blooms, White (for private gardeners only) : 

1st, Mrs. C. G. Weld, Matchless, $5; 2d, W. H. Wellington, White 
Wonder, $3. 
Fifty blooms, mixed varieties (for private gardeners only) : 
1st, A. W. Preston, $8; 2d, Mrs. Frederick Ayer, $4. 
Free si as. — One hundred sprays: 

1st, Mrs. C. G. Weld, $6; 2d, A. E. Parsons, $3. 
Gardenias. — Twelve blooms: 

1st, E. B. Dane, $5; 2d, Mrs. C. G. Weld, $3. 
Marguerites. — One hundred blooms, Yellow: 

1st, James Wheeler, $8. 
Mignonette. — Twelve spikes: 

1st, W. R. Nicholson, $5; 2d, Mrs. C. G. Weld, $3. 
Orchids. — Collection of blooms, arranged for effect, with any foliage: 

1st, F. J. Dolansky, $40; 2d, E. B. Dane, $20. 
Pansies. — One hundred blooms: 
1st, Osgood Bros., $5. 
Display of Pansies: 
1st, Osgood Bros., $10. 
Roses. — Tea or Hybrid Tea, twenty-five blooms, Dark Pink: 
1st, Waban Rose Conservatories, Lady Alice Stanley, $20. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS 133 

Twenty-five blooms, Light Pink: 

1st, A. N. Pierson Inc. Ophelia, $20; 2d, Waban Rose Conservatories, 
Ophelia, $10. 
Twenty-five blooms, Red: 

1st, Waban Rose Conservatories, Hadley, $20; 2d, Thomas Roland, 
Richmond,* $10. 
Twenty-five, any other color : 

1st, Waban Rose Conservatories, Mrs. Bayard Thayer, $20. 
Sweet Peas. — Twenty-five blooms, Lavender: 
1st, Burtt the Florist, Mrs. M. Spanolin, $5. 
Twenty-five blooms, Light Pink: 

1st, Thomas Roland, Mrs. A. A. Skach, $5; 2d, Axel Magnuson, 
Yarrawa, $3. 
Twenty-five blooms, Pink: 

1st, Thomas Roland, Christmas Pink Orchid, $5; 2d, Burtt the Florist, 
Yarrawa, $3. 
Twenty-five blooms, White: 

1st, Thomas Roland, $5. 
Twenty-five blooms, any other color : 

1st, Burtt the Florist, Concord Winsome, $5. 
Violets. — Bunch of one hundred blooms of any single variety: 

1st, Edward Bingham, Princess of Wales, $5; 2d, William- Sim, 
Princess of Wales, $3. 
Cut Flowers. — Artistic arrangement: 

Boston Cut Flower Co., $50; Perm the Florist, $50; Henry R. Comley, 
$50; Houghton & Gorney Co., $35; Caplan the Florist, $35; Iris- 
thorpe Farm, 



Rose, Peony, and Strawberry Exhibition. 

June 30 and July 1. 

John C. Chaffin Fund. 

Roses. — Best three blooms of White Hybrid Perpetual Roses (for ama- 
teurs only). 
1st, Mrs. B. D. Harris, Frau Karl Druschki, $4; 2d, A. L. Stephen, 
Frau Karl Druschki, $2. 
Best three blooms of Pink Hybrid Perpetual Roses (for amateurs only) : 
1st, Mrs. B. D. Harris, Mrs. John Laing, $4; 2d, David Tyndall, $2. 
Best three blooms of Red Hybrid Perpetual Roses (for amateurs only) : 
1st, Mrs. B. D. Harris, Ulrich Brunner, $4; 2d, J. B. Wills, Capt. 
Hay ward, $2. 
Twenty-four named varieties, one bloom of each : 
1st, W. J. Clemson, $10; 2d, T. N. Cook, $8. 



134 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Twelve named varieties, one bloom of each : 

1st, W. J. Clemson, $5. 
Six named varieties, one bloom of each : 

1st, J. B. Wills, $4; 2d, W. J. Clemson, $2. 
Six vases, six blooms each, stems not less than one foot in length : 

1st, W. J. Clemson, $10; 2d, T. N. Cook, $5. 



Samuel Appleton Fund. 

Hybrid Tea Roses. — Collection of twenty-five varieties, one bloom each: 
1st, T. N. Cook, $15; 2d, J. B. Wills, $10. 
Collection of twelve varieties, one bloom each: 

1st, J. B. Wills, $10; 2d, T. N. Cook, $6. 
Best three blooms of a Hybrid Tea introduced since 1914: 

T. N. Cook, $5. 
Six blooms, any White variety: 

1st, William Gray, Kaiserin Augusta Victoria, $4; 2d, T. N. Cook, 
White Killarney, $2. 
Six blooms, any Yellow variety: 

1st, William Gray, Mrs. Aaron Ward, $4; 2d, T. N. Cook, Mrs. 
Wemyss Quinn, $2. 
Six blooms, any Pink variety : 

1st, J. B. Wills, Lady Ashtown, $4; 2d, William Gray, Mme, Segond- 
Weber, $2. 
Six blooms, any Red variety: 

1st, J. B. Wills, $3; 2d, David Tyndall, $2. 



Special Prizes Offered by E. K. Butler. 

Hybrid Tea Rose. — Best individual bloom of a Hybrid Tea Rose in the 
exhibition: 
- J. B. Wills, Florence Pemberton, 



John Allen French Fund. 

Herbaceous Peonies. — Collection of twelve named varieties, double, 
one bloom of each: 
1st, A. H. Fewkes, $6; 2d, Mrs. C. S. Minot, $3. ' 
Six blooms Pink, six varieties, one bloom each: 

1st, A. H. Fewkes, $4; 2d, Mrs. C. S. Minot, $2. 
Six blooms White; 

1st, A. H. Fewkes, $4; 2d, R. C. Morse, $2. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS 135 

Sweet Williams. — Display, eighteen vases of three trusses each, not less 
than six varieties : 
1st, Miss Cornelia Warren, $6; 2d, W. C. Winter, $4. 
Hardy Herbaceous Flowers.— Twenty-five vases, distinct species and 
varieties : 
1st, Faulkner Farm, $10. 
Perennial Larkspurs. — Twelve vases, three spikes each: 
1st, F. W. Fletcher, Fletcher Hybrids, $6. 



Sweet Pea Exhibition. 

July 7 and 8. 

Sweet Peas. — Twenty-five sprays, any White variety: 

1st, Mrs. Robert Winthrop, Constance Hinton, $4; 2d, A. N. Cooley, 
Edna May Improved, $2. 
Twenty-five sprays, Crimson or Scarlet: 

1st, Mrs. Robert Winthrop, King Edward Spencer, $4; 2d, A. N. 
Cooley, Charity, $2. 
Twenty-five spraj r s, Yellow: 

1st, A. N. Cooley, Mrs. H. J. Damerum, $4; 2d, Mrs. Robert Win- 
throp, Mrs. H. J. Damerum, $2. 
Twenty-five sprays, Blue: 

1st, Mrs. Robert Winthrop, Blue Monarch, $4; 2d, A. N. Cooley, 
Blue Monarch, $2. 
Twenty-five sprays, Blush : 

1st, A. N. Cooley, Lady Evelyn Eyre, $4; 2d, Mrs. Robert Winthrop, 
Lady Evelyn Eyre, $2. 
Twenty-five sprays, Deep Pink: 

1st, A. N. Cooley, Hercules, $4; 2d, Edwin Jenkins, Hercules, $2. 
Twenty-five sprays, Cream Pink: 

1st, A. N. Cooley, Jean Ireland, $4; 2d, Iristhorpe Farm, Mrs. Bread- 
more, $2. 
Twenty-five sprays, any Orange: 

1st, Mrs. Robert Winthrop, May Unwin, $4; 2d, A. N. Cooley, May 
Unwin, $2. 
Twenty-five sprays, any Lavender: 

1st, Mrs. Robert Winthrop, Orchid Spencer, $4; 2d, Edwin Jenkins, 
King Mauve, $2. 
Twenty-five sprays, any Purple: 

1st, A. N. Cooley, Royal Purple, $4; 2d, Mrs. French Vanderbilt, 
Royal Purple, $2. 
Twenty-five sprays, any Maroon: 

1st, A. N. Cooley, King Manoel, $4; 2d, Iristhorpe Farm, King 
Manoel, $2. 



136 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Twenty-five sprays, any Striped of Flaked Red or Rose : 
1st, A. N. Cooley, Jessie Cuthbertson, $4. 
Iris Kaempferi. — Collection, not less than six varieties, filling twenty-five 
vases: 
1st, Iristhorpe Farm, $8. 

For Amateurs Only. 

Sweet Peas. — Best vase, White, twelve sprays: 

1st, W. G. Taylor, Constance Hinton, $2; 2d, Thomas Brook, Con- 
stance Hinton, $1. 
Best vase Pink: 

1st, W. G. Taylor, Hercules, $2; 2d, Mrs. P. G. Forbes, Elfrida Pear- 
son, $1. 
Best vase Dark Pink: 

1st, Mrs. P. G. Forbes, Margaret Atlee, $2; 2d, Thomas Brook, 
Hercules, SI. 
Best vase Lavender: \ 

1st, Mrs. P. G. Forbes, Florence Nightingale, $2; 2d, Margaret J. 
Miller, Florence Nightingale, $1. 
Best vase Salmon: 

1st, W. G. Taylor, Barbara, $2; 2d, Mrs. P. G. Forbes, Robert Syden- 
ham, $1. 
Best vase Crimson : 

1st, Thomas Burrows, Sunproof Crimson, $2; 2d, Margaret J. Miller, 
King Edward, $1. 
Best vase Primrose: 

1st, Thomas Burrows, Primrose Spencer, $2; 2d, Mrs. P. G. Forbes, 
Dobbie's Cream, $1. 
Best vase Scarlet: 

1st, Mrs. P. G. Forbes, Scarlet Emperor, $2; 2d, Margaret J. Miller, 
Fiery Cross, $1. 
Best vase, any other color: 

1st, Thomas Burrows, Royal Purple, $2; 2d, W. G. Taylor, Cherub, 

$1. 
Wild Flowers. — Collection, named, one bottle of each kind: 
1st, Albert Davidson, $5; 2d, Mrs. F. C. Upham, $4. 



July 21. 

Hollyho cks. — Twenty-four blooms, not less than four varieties: 
1st, Mrs. C. Winter, $4; 2d, W. G. Kendall, $2. 
Twelve spikes: 

1st, Faulkner Farm, $4; 2d, W. G. Kendall, $2. 



awards for plants and flowers 137 

Gladiolus and Phlox Exhibition. 

August 11 and 12. 

Annuals. — General display, named, thirty species, filling one hundred 
bottles: 
1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $10. 
Gladioli. — Twelve named varieties, one spike each: 
1st, C. F. Fairbanks, $5; 2d, Jelle Roos, $3. 
Vase of six spikes, Crimson, one variety: 

1st, H. E. Meader, Black Beauty, $4; 2d, Jelle Roos, Goliath, $2. 
Vase of six spikes, Pink: 

1st, H. E. Meader, Myrtle, $4; 2d, S. E. Spencer, Mrs. Frank Pendle- 
ton, $2. 
Vase of six spikes, Red: 

1st, Jelle Roos, Aleida, 14; 2d, H. E. Meader, Jessie, $2. 
Vase of six spikes, White: 

1st, C. F. Fairbanks, Jessie Palmer, $4; 2d, Jelle Roos, Chicago White, 
$2. 
Vase of six spikes, Yellow: , 

1st, C. F. Fairbanks, Ida, $4; 2d, Jelle Roos, Annie Wigman, $2. 
Vase of six spikes, any other color : 

1st, C. F. Fairbanks, Loveliness, $4; 2d, Jelle Roos, Herada, $2. 
Vase of six spikes, any Primulinus Hybrid: 

1st, Julia M. Fairbanks, $4; 2d, C. W. Brown, $2. 
One vase, ten spikes, ten varieties (for amateurs only) : 
1st, Mrs. P. G. Forbes, $5. 

Special Prizes Offered by C. F. Fairbanks. 

Best seedling Gladiolus, one spike: 

1st, Miss Fanny Foster, $25; 2d, Miss Fanny Foster, 
Collection of fifty named varieties, one spike of each: 

1st, C. F. Fairbanks, $20; 2d, Jelle Roos, 
Most artistic display, covering 200 sq. ft. : 

2d, C. W. Brown & Son, $20. 
Most artistically arranged basket: 

Boston Cut Flower Co., 



Josiah Bradlee Fund. 

Perennial Phloxes. — Twelve named varieties, one truss of each: 
1st, T. C. Thurlow's Sons Co., $5. 



138 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Twelve trusses, named varieties (commercial growers excluded) 

1st, Oliver Ames, $8. 
Six trusses, one variety: 

T. C. Thurlow's Sons Co., Maid Marion, $5. 



Dahlia and Fruit Exhibition. 

September 8 and 9. 

Dahlias. — Show and Fancy, twelve blooms, named varieties: 
1st, J. K. Alexander, $3; 2d, Forbes & Keith, $2. 
Cactus, twelve blooms, named varieties: 

1st, J. K. Alexander, $3; 2d, W. D. Hathaway, $2. 
Decorative, twelve blooms, named varieties: 

1st, W. D. Hathaway, $3; 2d, J. K. Alexander, $2. 
Peony-flowered, twelve blooms, named varieties : 

1st, J. K. Alexander, $3; 2d, W. D. Hathaway, $2. 
Pompon, twelve vases of three blooms each, named varieties: 

1st, J. K. Alexander, S3; 2d, W. D. Hathaway, $2. 
Single, twelve vases of three blooms each: 

1st, J. K. Alexander, $3. 
Largest and best collection of named varieties, one vase of each : 
1st, J. K. Alexander, $8; 2d, Forbes & Keith, $6. 
Hardy Herbaceous Flowers.— Thirty bottles, distinct species and vari- 
eties, not less than ten genera (commercial growers excluded) : 
1st, Faulkner Farm, $10. 
Wild Plants. — Collection in flower or fruit, one bottle of each kind: 
1st, Mrs. F. C. Upham, $5. 



Gold Medal. 

March 21. R. & J. Farquhar & Co., Flemish Garden. 

" " Julius Roehrs Co., Collection of Choice and Rare Orchids. 
June 2. James Wheeler, for installing June Outdoor Exhibition. 

R. & J. Farquhar & Co., Rock Garden. 

Thomas Roland, Rose Garden. 

Charles Sander, Collection of Azaleas and Wisterias. 

John Waterer Sons & Crisp, Ltd., Collection of Rhododendrons. 

Mrs. Samuel C. Lawrence, Rhododendrons. 

T. D. Hatfield, Exhibit of Rhododendrons. 

Julius Heurlin, Exhibit of Evergreen Trees. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS 139 

June 2. A. N. Cooley, Exhibit of Orchids. 

" " E. B. Dane,, 

" " Julius Roehrs Co., " 

" " F. J. Dolansky, " 
December 22. A. W. Preston, Brasso-Cattleya A. W. Preston. 

Silver Medal. 

February 3. George Melvin, Superior Cultivation of Dendrobium nobile 
virginale. 
" 10. A. W. Preston, Brasso-Laelio-Cattleya Seaforth Highlander. 
March 21 . William Sim, Garden Arrangement of Auriculas. 
" " Thomas Roland, Superior Cultivation of Ericas. 
. " " F. Dorner & Sons Co., Carnation Laddie. 
« « William Sim, Display of Polyantha Hybrids. 
June 2. Mrs. C. G. Weld, Flowering Plants. 
" " Faulkner Farm, 
" " E. S. Webster, 
" " William Sim, Display of Pansies. 

Mt. Desert Nurseries, Collection of Astilbes. 
" " J. T. Butterworth, Collection of Orchids. 
Miss Grace Sturtevant, Iris Shekinah. 

T. C. Thurlow's Sons Co., Collection of Herbaceous Peonies. 
Wellesley Nurseries. " " " " 

F. W. Fletcher, Collection Of Seedling Delphiniums. 
Mrs. Bayard Thayer, Lilium Thayerae. 

C. F. Fairbanks, Display of Gladiolus Primulinus Hybrids. 
" Boston Cut Flower Co., Artistic Arrangement of cut Gladioli 
in baskets and vases. 
September 8. Boston Cut Flower Co., Artistic Display, showing the vari- 
ous ways Dahlias and other flowers may be used for home 
decoration. 



First Class Certificate of Merit. 

January 13. F. Dorner & Sons Co., Carnation Rosalie. 
" " " " " " Laddie. 

March 21. A. N. Pierson Inc., New Hardy Climbing Rose Elizabeth 
Ziegler. 
Walter Hunnewell, Rhododendron lutescens. 
William Sim, Improved Blue Primrose. 
June 2. P. L. Carbone, Exhibit of Garden Accessories. 
J. Whittier, Exhibit of Garden Furniture. 
Henry Penn, Exhibit of Garden Ornaments. 



« 


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July 


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140 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

June 19. Miss Grace Sturtevant, Iris Empire. 

" " " " " " Rosette. 

" " " " " " True Charm. 

" 30. T. N. Cook, Climbing Rose Bonnie Prince. 

" " E. J. Shaylor, Seedling Peony Wilton Lockwood. 

" " " " " " " Wm. F. Turner. 

" " " " " " " Frances Shaylor. 

" " " " " " " No. 65. 

" " " " " " " Jessie Shaylor. 

'" " " " " " " Secretary Fewkes. 

July 7. F. W. Fletcher, Delphinium Belladonna Hybrid Sir Kenneth. 

" " " « " " " " LasellBlue. 

August 11. A. E. Kunderd, Seedling White Gladiolus Lily white. 

" 25. R. W. Swett, Seedling Gladiolus Beacon. 
September 8. Thomas Cogger, Gladiolus Mrs. Keur. 



Cultural Certificate. 
June 30. William Gray, Hybrid Tea Roses. 

Honorable Mention. 

February 3. Thomas Roland, Begonia, sport from Gloire de Lorraine. 

" A. E. Parsons, New Seedling Primula malacoides. 
March 21. Mrs. J. M. Sears, Seedling Amaryllis. 

" " C. E. Holbrow, New Seedling Rose (Christie Miller X Presi- 
dent Taft). 
N. T. Kidder, Isoloma Van Houttei. 
A. W. Preston, Tulip President Wilson. 
" Lowthorpe School of Horticulture, Collection of Geraniums in 
bloom, new and standard varieties. 
Walter Hunnewell, Group of Acacia Drummondii. 
Mrs. L. A. Breck, Dutch Garden. 
" Strouts, Seedling White Carnation Snow White. 
" S. J. Goddard, Crimson Seedling Carnation No. 10. 
June 2. E. A. Clark, Flowering Plants. 
" " W. W. Edgar Co., " 

" " R..M. Saltonstall, Display of Petunia Bar Harbor Beauty. 
" " S. M. Weld, Conifers and Flowering Plants. 
" " Mrs. J. E. Thayer, Display of English Ivy in pots. 
" " Miss Cornelia Warren, Orchids and Calceolarias. 
" 19. Miss Grace Sturtevant, Iris Reverie. 
" " " " " " Rose Madder. 

« " " " " " Tangiers. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS 141 

June 30. E. J. Shaylor, Seedling Peony No. 35. 

" " " " " " " Shaylor's Dream. 

" " " " " " " Alma, Japanese-flowered. 

July 7. Mrs Lester Leland, New Achimenes Supreme. 

" 21. J. H. Stalford, Seedling Antirrhinums. 
August 11. Miss Fanny Foster, Seedling Gladioli. 

" G. N. Smith, Seedling Phlox Wellesley. 
September 8. G. B. Gill, Seedling Decorative Dahlia Fitzhugh. 

" " Old Town Nurseries, Collection of Seedling Gladioli. 

" " Fottler, Fiske, Rawson Co., Display of Gladioli and Dahlia 

Flowers. 
" " J. K. Alexander, Collection of Colossal Dahlias. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS 
FOR THE YEAR 1917. 

By Edward B. Wilder, Chairman. 



The year has seemed to be out of season or we might say erratic 
from the standpoint of the fruit grower. 

The Spring was very late, the Summer comparatively cool, 
and the usual heat for the first ten to fifteen days of September, 
so much needed for maturing the crops, was lacking. 

The scheduled exhibitions of fruit have, however, been held, 
though sometimes the dates have been changed or the shows 
extended because of the conditions already referred to. 

The Rose, Peony, and Strawberry Exhibition was postponed 
from June 23-24 to June 30- July 1 and entries not made on the 
latter dates were admitted at a Special Show, July 7-8. Consider- 
ing the season there was a good display of berries, the arrangement 
of the fruit with its own foliage on the plates of the Society, still 
growing in favor with the people. 

The Silver Medal for the best new strawberry of merit not yet 
introduced was awarded to Dr. Frederick S. De Lue of Needham 
for a seedling named Venia. Dr. De Lue says "this strawberry 
is medium early, very prolific, having a long season, and holding 
its size to the last." 

The lateness of the season caused the postponement of the 
fruit exhibit at the Sweet Pea Exhibition from July 7-8 to July 21. 
The lack of peaches at the Dahlia and Fruit Exhibition, September 
8-9, was very noticeable, entries being made in only two classes. 

The event of the year was the Special Exhibition of Fruits, 
October 31-November 4, in conjunction with the Biennial Exhibi- 
tions of the American Pomological Society and the New England 
Fruit Show. 

All the halls were used for exhibition purposes, the lectures and 
discussions being held in the hall in the basement. Eminent po- 

143 



144 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

mologists and fruit growers from Canada and many States in the 
Union took part in these meetings, vital subjects being discussed. 

The exhibits under the schedule of the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society were held in the lecture hall and small hall. The 
plate exhibits of apples were very good showing a wonderful 
improvement since the meeting with the American Pomological 
Society in 1903. Special interest was manifest in the collections 
of New England grown apples arranged for decorative effect with 
foliage, covering a space not to exceed 48 square feet. 

In this class A. B. Howard & Son of Belchertown won first, Derby 
'Farm, Leominster, second, and Wright A. Root, Easthampton, 
third prize. 

There were two entries for the artistic display of New England 
grown fruits to cover 100 square feet. A. B. Howard & Son was 
awarded first prize for a beautiful and truly artistic display of 
fruit, embracing 15 varieties of apples, 10 of pears, 10 of plums, 
3 of quinces, and 1 of peaches, all the fruit being of excellent 
quality. Wright A. Root took second prize with a hut decorated 
with apple boughs. 

A new and interesting feature of the show was the class for the 
best 100 apples, there being 17 entries, all of which were good. 
For the best 100 Baldwin apples Thomas K. Winsor of Greenville, 
R. I., took first and Derby Farm second prize. For the best 100 
Mcintosh apples Derby Farm took first and C. C. Pettigrew, Mt. 
Vernon N. H., second prize. For the best 100 apples of any other 
variety Frank F. Brown of North Scituate, R. I., took first prize 
with 100 Northern Spy and Thomas K. Winsor second prize with 
100 R. I. Greening. The collections of ten, five, and three varieties 
of apples were well represented, the whole display of apples in the 
exhibition being remarkably free from San Jose scale. 

Considering the season of the year the exhibit of hardy grapes 
was remarkably fine. The first prize for best collection of ten 
varieties of grapes went to John Bauernfeind of Medford, second 
to Dr. W. G. Kendall of Atlantic. The new class for 25 bunches 
of hardy grapes brought out some excellent entries. Mrs. M. J. 
Merrill of Medford was awarded first prize for 25 bunches of 
Concord grapes, Dr. Kendall first prize for 25 bunches of Niagara, 
and John Bauernfeind second prize for 25 bunches of Delaware in 
the class for any other variety of grapes. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON FRUITS 145 

Honorable Mention was given Dr. Kendall for two bunches of. 
Black Hamburg grapes, outdoor culture, the first ever shown 
here. This opens a new field of investigation in growing hothouse 
grapes in the open air. Mrs. John C. Whitin of Whitinsville (Wm. 
McAllister, gardener) displayed a collection of beautiful hothouse 
grapes and Mrs. J. M. Sears of Southboro (J. S. Doig, gardener) 
two bunches of Black Hamburg. 

Pears were well represented, all classes being filled, the new class 
for the best 50 pears receiving marked attention. Dr. Kendall 
won the first prize for best 50 Bosc pears, Warren Heustis and Son, 
Belmont, first prize for best 50 Dana's Hovey pears, and F. W. 
Dahl of Roxbury first prize for any other variety, 50 Lawrence. 

Among the exhibits of the American Pomological Society in 
the main hall were large collections of seedling apples from the 
Central Experimental Farm of Ottawa, Canada, under the charge 
of Professor William T. Macoun, also tables of apples from Virginia 
and North Carolina which attracted much attention on account of 
their size, color, and quality. A table of persimmons from North 
Carolina, consisting of many new varieties created great interest. 
This fruit, somewhat new to us for table use, is becoming popular 
in the market. 

The great size of the pecan nuts from Georgia attracted much 
attention. These nuts have shells so thin that a lady can crack 
them with her gloved hand and they contain a wonderful amount 
of meat. 

Great interest was manifest in the exhibits of the New England 
Fruit Show, representing all the New England States, and com- 
prising hundreds of boxes and barrels of the finest apples equaling 
in size, color, and quality any fruit grown in this country. Consid- 
ering the abnormal season the Fruit Committee feels that the 
exhibits of fruit have been good. 



Edward B. Wilder 
W t illiam N. Craig 
Isaac H. Locke 
James Methven 



Committee 

on 

Fruits. 



146 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

PRIZES AWARDED FOR FRUITS. 

1917. 

January 13. 

Theodore Lyman Fund, No. 1. 

Apples. — One plate of Winter Apples: 

A. B. Howard & Son, $4. 
Pears. — One plate of Winter Pears: 

F. W. Dahl, $4. 

Spring Exhibition. 

March 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25. 

Benjamin V. French Fund, No. 2. 

Winter Apples. — Collection of not less than four varieties: 
1st, A. B. Howard & Son, $6; 2d, F. L. Chamberlain, $4. 
Two plates: 

1st, F. L. Chamberlain, $4; 2d, A. B. Howard & Son, $3. 
Plate of one variety : 

1st, F. L. Chamberlain, $3; 2d, F. L. Chamberlain, $2. 
Pears. — Plate of any variety: 

1st, John Bauernfeind, $3; 2d, F. W. Dahl, $2. 



Rose, Peony, and Strawberry Exhibition. 
June 30 and July 1. 

Benjamin V. French Fund, No. 2. 

Strawberries. — For the best collection of ten plates of 48 berries each, 
not less than six varieties: 
1st, Wilfrid Wheeler, $15. 
Two plates, 24 berries each, of any variety introduced since 1912: 

1st, F. S. DeLue, Judith, 14. 
Best two plates, 48 berries each, of any variety: 
1st, F. S. DeLue, $8. 



AWARDS FOR FRUITS 



147 



Best single plate of any variety, 24 berries: 

1st, F. S. DeLue, $3; 2d, James Donald, $2. 
Best new strawberry of merit not yet introduced, 48 berries: 

F. S. DeLue, Venia, Silver Medal. 
Two plates Abington, 24 berries each : 

1st, Wilfrid Wheeler, $3. 
Two plates Barrymore: 

1st, H. L. Crane, S3. 
Two plates Golden Gate: 

1st, W. C. Cooper, $3. 
Two plates Marshall: 

1st, Louis Graton, $3; 2d, W. C. Cooper, $2. 
Two plates any other variety : 

1st, W. C. Cooper, Warren, $3; 2d, H. L. Crane, Howards, $2. 
For the best new strawberry of recent introduction not previously exhib- 
ited before this Society, two plates, 24 berries each: 

1st, Louis Graton, Edmund Wilson, $8. « 



Sweet Pea Exhibition. 

July 7 and 8. 

Strawberries. — Best three plates, 24 berries each, of any variety: 
1st, G. V. Fletcher, $5; 2d, W. C. Cooper, $4. 
Two plates William Belt: 
1st, W. C. Cooper, $3. 
Cherries. — Two plates, 24 specimens each, of any Red variety: 
1st, E. B. Wilder, Downer, $3; 2d, F. W. Dahl, Early Red, $2. 
Two plates, 24 specimens each, of any White or Yellow variety: 

1st, F. W. Dahl, White Heart, $3. * 
Best fruited branch of Cherries : 

1st, F. W. Dahl, White Heart, $3; 2d, F. W. Dahl, Early Red, I 

July 21. 

Theodore Lyman Fund, No. 1. 

Raspberries. — Cuthbert, 96 berries: 
1st, W. C. Cooper, $3. 
Herbert : 

1st, W. C. Cooper, $3. 
Any White variety: 
1st, E. B. Wilder, $3. 
Cherries. — Any Red variety, 96 specimens: 

1st, Faulkner Farm, $3; 2d, Sumner Smith, $2. 



148 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Any White or Yellow variety, 96 specimens: 

1st, Mrs. M. J. Merrill, $3; 2d, F. W. Dahl, $2. 

Any Black variety, 96 specimens: 

1st, Faulkner Farm, $3; 2d, Sumner Smith, $2. 

v 

\ 

Society's Prizes. 

Currants. — Fay's, 48 bunches: 

1st, John Bauernfeind, $3, 2d, E. M. Brewer, $2. 
Perfection : 

1st, John Bauernfeind, $3; 2d, Mrs. C. G. Weld, $2. 
Wilder: 

1st, John Bauernfeind, $3. 
Any other Red variety: 

1st, E. M. Brewer, Cherry, $3. 
White Grape: 

1st, W. C. Winter, $3. 
Any other White variety: 

1st, John Bauernfeind, White Imperial, $3; 2d, W. C. Winter, White 
Dutch, $2. 
Gooseberries. — Columbus, 48 berries: 

1st, W. G. Kendall, 
Downing, 48 berries: 

1st, W. G. Kendall, 
Industry, 48 berries: 

1st, W. G. Kendall, $3; 2d, Samuel McMullen, $2. 
Triumph, 48 berries: 

1st, John Bauernfeind, S3. 
Any other variety, 48 berries: * 

1st, W. G. Kendall, Chautauqua, S3; 2d, W. G. Kendall, Bates, $2. 
Collection of six plates, 48 berries each, not less than three varieties: 

1st, W. G. Kendall, S5; 2d, W. C. Winter, $4. 



Gladiolus and Phlox Exhibition. 

August 11 and 12. 



Benjamin V. French Fund, No. 1. 

Apples. — Best collection of Summer Apples : 
2d, M. S. Wheeler, $8. 
Best plate of Summer Apples: 

1st, M. S. Wheeler, Red Astrachan, S3; 2d/G. V. Fletcher, Sweet 
Bough, S2. 



2d, John Bauernfeind, $2. 
2d, John Bauernfeind, $2. 



AWARDS FOR FRUITS 149 



Josiah Bradlee Fund. 

Blackberries. — Any variety, 48 berries: 

1st, W. C. Winter, Erie, $3; 2d, Mrs. Henry Lyman, Agawam, 
Blueberries. — One hundred berries: 

1st, Jennison's Floral Gardens, $3; 2d, Mrs. Henry Lyman, $2 

Society's Prizes. 

Peaches. — Six specimens: 

1st, W. C. Winter, Fitzgerald, $5. 



Dahlia and Fruit Exhibition. 

September 8 and 9. 

Apples. — Best collection of Fall Apples (commercial growers excluded): 
1st, M. S. Wheeler, $10; 2d, Faulkner Farm, $5. 
Best plate of Fall Apples: 

1st, M. S. Wheeler, Red Astrachan, $3; 2d, H. A. Clark, Wealthy, $2. 

Marshall P. Wilder Fund. 

Native Grapes. — Three bunches, any variety: 

1st, E. R. Farrar, Moore's Early, S3; 2d, M. B. Farrar, Moore's Early. 
$2. 
Collection of five varieties, three bunches of each : 
1st, E. R. Farrar, $5; 2d, John Bauernfeind, $4. 

Society's Prizes. 

Peaches. — Carman: 

1st, H. A. Clark, S3; 2d, W. G. Kendall, $2. 
Champion : 

1st, M. B. Farrar, $3; 2d, E. R. Farrar, $2. 

Marshall P. Wilder Fund. 

Pears. — Bartlett: 

1st, Mrs. Elbridge Torrey, S3; 2d, W. Heustis & Son, $2. 
Clapp's Favorite: 

1st, W. G. Kendall, S3; 2d, Mrs. Elbridge Torrey, $2. 



150 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Any other variety: 

1st, E. B. Wilder, Brandywine, $3; 2d, John Bauernfeind, Flemish 
Beauty, $2. 

Society's Prizes. 

Plums. — Single plate of any variety other than Japanese: 

1st, F. W. Dahl, $3; 2d, G. V. Fletcher, $2. 
Japanese Plums. — Collection of not less than four varieties, twelve speci- 
mens of each : 
1st, M. S. Wheeler, $5. 
Single plate of any variety : 

1st, Mrs. R. Goodnough, Abundance, $3; 2d, M. S. Wheeler, Hale, $2. 
Melons. — Scarlet Flesh, three specimens: 

1st, Robert Dunn, Honeydrop, $3; 2d, James Donald, Sutton's Scar- 
let, $2. 



Special Exhibition of Fruits. 
October 31, November 1, 2, 3, and 4. 

Theodore Lyman Fund, No. 2. 

Apples. — Alexander, twelve specimens: 

1st, C. C. Pettigrew, $4. 
Baldwin : 

1st, E. N. Sawyer, $4; 2d, D. R. Miller, $2. 
Ben Davis: 

1st, The Chase Orchards, $4; 2d, A. H. Prouty, $2. 
Black Gilliflower: 

1st, F. L. Chamberlain, $4; 2d, W. A. Root, $2. 
Blue Pearmain: 

1st, Derby Farm, $4; 2d, The Chase Orchards, $2. 
Delicious : 

1st, C. L. Witherell, $4; 2d, A. B. Howard & Son, $2. 
Esopus Spitzenburg: 

1st, The Orchards, $4; 2d, C. L. Witherell, $2. 
Fallawater : 

1st, A. P. Smith, $4. 
Fall Pippin: 

1st, J. T. Geer, $4; 2d, A. B. Howard & Son, $2. 
Fameuse : 

1st, C. C. Pettigrew, $4; 2d, E. H. West, $2. 



AWARDS FOR FRUITS 151 



Garden Royal: 

2d, I. M. Blood, $2. 
Golden Russet: 

1st, A. P. Smith, $4; 2d, The Chase Orchards, $2. 
Gravenstein: 

1st, Drew's Fruit Farm, $4; 2d, T. K. Winsor, $2. 
Grimes Golden: 

1st, The Orchards, $4. 
Hubbardston : 

1st, W. H. Atkins, $4; 2d, C. C. Pettigrew, $2. 
Jacob's Sweet: 

1st, Parker Bros., $4. 
Jonathan : 

1st, Derby Farm, $4; 2d, The Orchards, $2. 
King: 

1st, E. N. Sawyer, $4; 2d, A. B. Howard & Son, $2. 
Mcintosh: 

1st, M. S. Wheeler, $4; 2d, E. N. Sawyer, $2. 
Maiden's Blush: 

1st, J. T. Geer, $4. 
Mother: 

1st, A. P. Smith, $4. 
Newtown : 

1st, Hillcrest Farm, $4. 
Northern Spy: 

1st, W. H. Conant, $4; 2d, The Orchards, $2. 
Oldenburg : 

1st, A. L. Fish, $4; 2d, The Orchards, $2. 
Opalescent : 

1st, G. V. Mead, $4; 2d, The Orchards, $2. 
Palmer Greening: 

1st, E. F. Adams, $4; 2d, F. L. Chamberlain, $2. 
Peck Pleasant: 

1st, T. K. Winsor, $4; 2d, Parker Bros., $2. 
Pewaukee : 

1st, W. A. Root, $4; 2d, C. C. Pettigrew, $2. 
Porter : 

1st, J. M. Schwartz, $4; 2d, W. A. Root, $2. 
Pound Sweet: 

1st, A. H. Prouty, $4. 
Red Canada: 

1st, A. B. Howard & Son, $4; 2d, Parker Bros., $2. 
Red Russet: 

1st, J. M. Schwartz, $4; 2d, A. L. Fish, $2. 
Rhode Island Greening: 

1st, W. A. Root, $4; 2d, A. B. Howard & Son, $2. 



I 

152 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Roxbury Russet: 

1st, Augustus Hemenway, $4; 2d, W. H. Atkins, $2. 
St. Lawrence: 

1st, F. L. Chamberlain, $4; 2d, M. J. Cain, $2. 
Salome : 

1st, J. T. Geer, $4; 2d, J. H. Prouty, $2. 
Seek No Further: ^ 

• 1st, A. B. Howard & Son, $4; 2d, The Chase Orchards, $2. 
Stark : 

1st, E. N. Sawyer, $4; 2d, A. L. Fish, $2. 
Sutton : 

1st, E. N. Sawyer, $4; 2d, I. M. Blood, $2. 
Swaar : 

1st, Parker Bros., $4. 
Tolman Sweet: 

1st, C. C. Pettigrew, $4; 2d, T. J. Geer, $2. 
Twenty Ounce: 

1st, C. C. Pettigrew, $4; 2d, H. A. Clark, $2. 
Yellow Bellflower: 

1st, R. H. Gardiner, $4; 2d, A. B. Howard & Son, $2. 
Yellow Transparent: 

1st, E. H. West, $4; 2d, A. L. Fish, $2. 
Wagener : , 

1st, Drew's Fruit Farm, $4; 2d, The Orchards, $2. 
Walbridge : 

1st, W. H. Atkins, $4; 2d, A. B. Howard & Son, $2. 
' Wealthy: 

1st, E. N. Sawyer, $4; 2d, A. B. Howard & Son, $2. 
Winter Banana: 

1st, E. N. Sawyer, $4; 2d, C. L. Witherell, $2. 
Wolf River: 

1st, C. C. Pettigrew, $4; 2d, A. H. Prouty, $2. 
Any other variety: 

1st, Hillcrest Farm, Stayman, $4; 2d, The Chase Orchards, Kin^ 
Pippin, $2. 
Crab Apples. — Hyslop, twenty-four specimens: 

1st, M. J. Cain, $4; 2d, W. A. Root, $2. 
Transcendent : 

1st, A. B. Howard & Son, $4. 
Any other variety: 

1st, J. T. Geer, Marengo, $4. 

John S. Farlow Newton Horticultural Society Fund. 

Pears. — Angouleme, twelve specimens: 

1st, Mrs. Elbridge Torrey, $4;. 2d, F. W. Dahl, $2. 



AWARDS FOR FRUITS 153 

Anjou: 

1st, F. W. Dahl, $4. 
Bosc: 

1st, W. G. Kendall, $4; 2d, Wilfrid Wheeler, $2. 
Clairgeau : 

1st, F. W. Dahl, $4; 2d, A. B. Howard & Son, $2. 
Dana Hovey: 

1st, W. Heustis & Son, $4; 2d, W. G. Kendall, $2. 
Lawrence : 

1st, F. W. Dahl, $4; 2d, Edward Mayhofer, $2. 
Louise Bonne de Jersey: • 

1st, F. W. Dahl, $4; 2d, A. B. Howard & Son, $2. 
Seckel : 

1st, F. W. Dahl, $4; 2d, I. M. Blood, $2. 
Winter Nelis: 

1st, F. W. Dahl, $4; 2d, A. B. Howard & Son, $2. 
Any other variety : 

1st, A. B. Howard & Son, Clapp's Favorite, $4; 2d, F. W, Dahl, Super- 
fin, $2. 

Theodore Lyman Fund, No. 2. 

Grapes. — Agawam six bunches: 

1st, John Bauernfeind, $4; 2d, E. F. Williams, $2. 
Brighton : 

1st, C. W. Libby, $4; 2d, W. G. Kendall, $2, 
Concord : 

1st, John Bauernfeind, $4; 2d, W. G. Kendall, $2. 
Delaware : 

1st, John Bauernfeind, $4; 2d, W. G. Kendall, $2. 
Herbert : 

1st, John Bauernfeind, $4; 2d, C. W. Libby, $2. 
Moore's Diamond: 

1st, W. G. Kendall, $4; 2d, C. W. Libby, $2. 
Niagara: 

1st, John Bauernfeind, $4; 2d, W. G. Kendall, $2. 
Salem : 

1st, John Bauernfeind, $4; 2d, W. G. Kendall, $2. 
Wilder : 

1st, John Bauernfeind, $4; 2d, E. A. Adams, $2. 
Worden : 

1st, John Bauernfeind, $4; 2d,' W. G. Kendall, $2. 
Any other variety: 

1st, W. G. Kendall, Vergennes, $4; 2d, John Bauernfeind, Diana, $2. 
Quinces. — Any variety, twelve specimens: 

1st, I. H. Locke, $4; 2d, A. B. Howard & Son, $2. 



154 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Cranbekries. — Collection of not less than four varieties, half-peck of each: 

1st, A. D. Makepeace, $12. 
. Half -peck of any variety : 

1st, A. D. Makepeace, Batchelder, $4; 2d, A. D. Makepeace, Centen- 
nial, $2. 

John S. Farlow Newton Horticultural Society Fund. 

Foreign Grapes. — Collection of four varieties, 2 bunches of each: 
1st, Mrs. J. C. Whitin, $25; 2d, W. C. Winter, $15. 
Any Black variety, two bunches: 
1st, Mrs. J. M. Sears, $6. 



Theodore Lyman Fund, No. 2. 

Apples. — For the best collection of New England grown apples, arranged 
for decorative effect : 
1st, A. B. Howard & Son, $30; 2d, Derby Farm, $20; 3d, W. A. Root, 



For the best one hundred Baldwin Apples : 

1st, T. K. Winsor, $20; 2d, Derby Farm, $10. 
For the best one hundred Mcintosh Apples: 

1st, Derby Farm, $20; 2d, C. C. Pettigrew, 
For the best one hundred of any other variety of Apples: 

1st, F. F. Brown, Northern Spy, $20; 2d, T. K. Winsor, Rhode Island 
Greening, $10. 

Additional Prizes. 

For Artistic Display of New England Grown Fruit. — To cover 
100 sq.ft.: 
1st, A. B. Howard & Son, $75; 2d, W. A. Root, $35. 
Apples. — For collection of ten named varieties, one plate of twelve speci- 
mens of each variety: 
1st, The Orchards, $20; 2d, A. B. Howard & Son, $10. 
For collection of five varieties: 

1st, J. M. Schwartz, $10; 2d, A. B. Howard & Son, $5. 
For collection of three varieties : 

1st, W. A. Root, $6; 2d, A. P. Smith, $3. 
Hardy Grapes. — Twenty-five bunches Concord: 
1st, Mrs. M. J. Merrill, $15. 
Twenty-five bunches of Green Mountain: 

2d, M.E.Smith, $8. 
Twenty-five bunches of any other variety: 

1st, W. G. Kendall, Niagara, $15; 2d, John Bauernfeind, Delaware, $8. 



AWARDS FOR FRUITS 155 

Ten varieties, three bunches each: 

1st, John Bauernfeind, $20; 2d, W. 6. Kendall, $5. 
Five varieties, three bunches each: 

1st, C. W. Libby, $10. 
Three varieties, three bunches each: 

1st, John Bauernfeind, $6; 2d, C. W. Libby, $3. 
Pears. — Fifty specimens: 

1st, W. G. Kendall, $15; 2d, W. Heustis & Son, $8. 
Dana Hovey: 

1st, W. Heustis & Son, $15; 2d, W. G. Kendall, $8. 
Any other variety: 

1st, F. W. Dahl, Lawrence, $15; 2d, Wilfrid Wheeler, Seckel, $8. 
Ten varieties, one plate of 10 specimens each: 

1st, A. B. Howard & Son, $20; 2d, F. W. Dahl, $10. 
Five varieties, one plate of twelve specimens each: 

1st, F. W. Dahl, $10; 2d, A. B. Howard & Son, $5. 
Three varieties, one plate of twelve specimens each : 

1st, F. W. Dahl, $6; 2d, W. G. Kendall, $3. 
For the largest specimen Apple : 

A. B. Howard & Son, Scarlet Beauty, $10. 
For the largest specimen Pear: 

F. W. Dahl, Clairgeau, $10. 
For the largest bunch of Hardy Grapes: 

John Bauernfeind, Niagara, $10. 
Preserved Fruits. — For the largest collection put up in glass: 

1st, Hermine A. Schulz, $25; 2d, Mrs. A. E. Titchener, $12; 3d, 
Melita Crawley, $6. 



Honorable Mention. 
October 31. W. G. Kendall, Black Hamburg Grapes, outdoor culture. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES 
FOR THE YEAR 1917. 

By John L. Smith, Chairman. 



The year 1917 in some respects has not been a successful one; 
the shortage of labor, due to conditions arising from the war, is 
largely responsible for this. The vegetables exhibited during the 
year were of the same high quality as in former years. No new 
vegetable was exhibited during the year 1917. 

Our vegetable shows during the year, on the whole, were con- 
sidered far behind other years. The gratifying feature of the year 
has been the revival of interest on the part of the people in general 
in agricultural matters. The people have manifested the desire 
to acquire knowledge concerning agriculture and to apply the same 
in the cultivation of any land owned or hired by them. This 
interest should be kept alive and everything should be done to 
assist those who desire to become interested in the cultivation of the 
soil. 

The year that has just closed has been a remarkable one in many 
respects. It has witnessed the entry of our country into the great 
World War. It has also seen an awakening of interest among the 
people in agriculture. The pressing needs of the War have directed 
our attention to the study of the soil and its products. We are 
beginning to realize that the progress of a nation depends largely 
upon agriculture. 

A generation ago, every family had its garden plot, with hens, 
pigs, and cows. The cost of living was small because it was not 
necessary for such a family to go into the market to buy its food 
products. This condition for some years has ceased. A man's 
time has been regarded as too valuable to devote to such work. 
We have been gradually divorcing ourselves from the soil, leaving 
its cultivation in the hands of men who do it merely for profit. 

157 



158 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

We have been accustomed too long to buy the necessaries of life 
at the store, and have lost all interest in the cultivation of the small 
plot of ground, a custom which, only a few years ago, was universal. 
A wonderful educational campaign, however, has been waged 
during the past year, directing the attention of the people to the 
necessity of utilizing all spare land for the purpose of raising crops, 
no matter how small in amount. This should be continued with 
intensified effort until the head of every family can say that a large 
percentage of the necessaries consumed by his family are pro- 
duced by their joint personal efforts. 

There is a wonderful opportunity to assist the people in this 
work for many are unfamiliar with the care necessary to secure 
proper results. This community is fortunate in having a society 
similar to ours. It should be our purpose to give freely information 
and advice to every person seeking it, so that there may be an 
intelligent application of effort to the raising of produce. We should 
assist, as a society and as individuals, in stimulating the people to 
take an interest in agricultural matters. The governmental depart- 
ments are ably advising people as to the conservation of food 
for the purpose of eliminating all waste; let us, as an organization, 
do our part to increase the amount of the supply. The handling 
of the matter should be arranged in an orderly manner. 

I can make no better suggestion than to have a committee, 
known as the "Committee, or Bureau, of Information." This 
committee should be prepared to furnish all information concerning 
the proper planting and care of the various vegetables, including, 
of course, the preparation of the soil for the planting of the seed. 
The whole resources of the Society, if necessary, should be pledged 
to this work. This does not mean that its activities in other 
branches should cease, but that they should be subject to the more 
pressing one of assisting in furnishing an adequate food supply for 
the Nation. 

If our efforts do anything towards a revival of interest on the 
part of the people in the cultivation of the soil, we will have ac- 
complished much. Our work along these lines will be as important 
to the Government and to the Nation as if we were actively engaged 
with the Army in matters more intimately connected with the 
prosecution of the War. It is a work to which we may well bend 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES. 159 

our efforts, and when the present struggle is ended, it will be ap- 
parent that [this work has done much in bringing it to a successful 
termination. 

John L. Smith ] Committee 
Edward Parker [> on 
Wm. C. Rust J Vegetables. 



160 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



PRIZES AWARDED FOR VEGETABLES. 

1917. 
January 13. 

Mushrooms. — Twelve specimens: 

Miss Cornelia Warren, $4. . 
Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens: 

Mrs. C. G. Weld, Sterling Castle, $4. 



Spring Exhibition. 

March 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25. 

Cucumbers. — Four: 

1st, J. W. Stone, White Spine, $4. 
Lettuce. — Four heads: 

1st, M. E. Moore, Tennisball, $4; 2d, H. M. Howard, Tennisball, 
Mushrooms. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, A. W. Crockford, $4; 2d, G. A. Christofferson, |2. 
Radishes. — Four bunches: 

1st, A. W. Crockford, $4; 2d, J. W. Stone, $2. 
Rhubarb.— - Twelve stalks: 

1st, D. R. Craig, $4. 

Iris Exhibition. 

May 26. 

Lettuce. — Four heads: 

1st, Miss E. B. Thacher, $4. 



Rose, Peony, and Strawberry Exhibition. 

June 30 and July 1. 

Beets. — Twelve, open culture: 

1st, W. Heustis & Son, Early Wonder, $4. 
Cabbage. — Four specimens: 1st, W. Heustis & Son, Early Market, $4; 
2d, W. Heustis & Son, Early Spring, $3. 



AWARDS FOR VEGETABLES 161 

Cucumbers. — Four specimens, White Spine: 
1st, Oliver Ames, $4. 
Four specimens English: 

1st, W. J. Clemson, Telegraph, $4; 2d, Oliver Ames, Telegraph, $3. 
Lettuce. — Four heads: 

1st, James Donald, Ideal, $4; 2d, Oliver Ames, Big Boston, $3. 
Four heads Cos or Romaine: 

1st, W. J. Clemson, Trianon, $4; 2d, James Donald, Farquhar's Cos., 
$3. 
Peas. — Gradus of Thomas Laxton, fifty pods: 
1st, Oliver Ames, $4. 
Sutton's Excelsior, fifty pods: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, $4. 
Any other variety, fifty pods: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, Little Marvel, $4; 2d, James Donald, Farquhar's 
Prolific, $3. 
Collection of Vegetables. — Ten varieties, tastefully arranged: 
1st, W. J. Clemson, $15; 2d, Miss E. B. Thacher, $8. 



Sweet Pea Exhibition. 
July 7 and 8. 

William J. Walker Fund. 

Beans. — String, fifty pods: 

1st, Miss E. B. Thacher, Black Valentine, $3. 
Beets. — Twelve: 

1st, W. Heustis & Son, Early Wonder, $3; 2d, Oliver Ames, Crosby's 
Egyptian, $2. 
Cabbage. — Four specimens: 

1st, W. Heustis & Son, Early Market, $4; 2d, W. Heustis & Son, 
Copenhagen, $3. 
Cauliflower. — Four specimens: 

1st, A. W. Preston, New Pearl, $4; 2d, Miss E. B. Thacher, Early 
Paris, $3. 
Carrots. — Six specimens: 

1st, W. Heustis & Son, Short Horn, $3. 
Cucumbers. — Four: 

1st, Oliver Ames, Telegraph, $3; 2d, J. J. Lyons, $2. 
Lettuce. — Four heads: 

1st, Oliver Ames, Big Boston, $3; 2d, James Donald, Farquhar's 
Express Cos., $2. 



162 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Peas. — Fifty pods: 

1st, Oliver Ames, Breck's Record, $3; 2d, James Donald, Laxton's 
Superb, $2. 
Potatoes. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, Oliver Ames, Albino, $3. 
Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, Oliver Ames, Sterling Castle, $3. 
Collection of Vegetables. — Twelve varieties: 

1st, Miss E. B. Thacher, $15. 
Six varieties: 

1st, Oliver Ames, $10; 2d, W. Heustis & Son, $5. 



Gladiolus and Phlox Exhibition. 
August 11 and 12. 

William J. Walker Fund. 

Beans. — Two quarts shelled, not Lima: 

1st, W. Heustis & Son, Horticultural, $3; 2d, D. L. Fiske, Horticul- 
tural, $2. 
String, four quarts: 

1st, James Donald, Plentiful, $3; 2d, D. L. Fiske, $2. 
Cucumbers. — White Spine variety: 

1st, J. J. Lyons, $3; 2d, W. Heustis & Son, $2. 
Cabbage. — Four specimens: 

1st, Miss E. B. Thacher, $3; 2d, James Donald, $2. 
Onions. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, Mrs. Henry Lyman, $4; 2d, Oliver Ames, $3. 
Peppers. — Twelve specimens, any variety: 

1st, D. L. Fiske, $3. 
Squash. — Marrow, three specimens: 

1st, W. Heustis & Son, $3. 
Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears, any variety: 

1st, D. L. Fiske, Peep o' Day, $3; 2d, D. L. Fiske, Jennings, $2. 
Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, Miss E. B. Thacher, Chalk's Jewell, $3; 2d, Oliver Ames, Jewell, 
$2. 
Collection of Vegetables. — Fifteen varieties: 

1st, James Donald, $10; 2d, Miss E. B. Thacher, $8. 
Eight varieties: * 

1st, W. Heustis & Son, $5; 2d, D. L. Fiske, $4. 



awards for vegetables. 163 

Dahlia and Fruit Exhibition. 

September 8 and 9. 



Collection of Vegetables. — Ten varieties: 

1st, Mrs. Henry Lyman, $10; 2d, James Donald, 
Five varieties: 

1st, D. L. Fiske, $5; 2d, D. L. Fiske, $4. 



Honorable Mention. 
September 8. Mrs. Henry Lyman, Prizewinner Bean. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS FOR THE 

YEAR 1917. 

Richard M. Saltonstall, Chairman. 



The Committee on Gardens has made two visits during the year, 
one to the commercial greenhouses of William Sim at Cliftondale 
and the other to the private estate of B. H. Bristow Draper at 
Hopedale. They are reported upon as follows: 



Geeenhouses of William Sim, Cliftondale. 

On March 31 the committee was invited to inspect the commer- 
cial plant of William Sim at Cliftondale to see his extensive col- 
lection of Primula polyantha hybrids, sweet peas, violets, and 
carnations. The center of interest in this visit was the houses of 
primroses and auriculas which Mr. Sim is endeavoring to popu- 
larize as florists' flowers. Auriculas especially show a wonderful 
combination of color and although considered hardy are best 
adapted to greenhouse cultivation in this climate. Mr. Sim reports 
an encouraging demand for them by the florists. 

The quality of the sweet peas and violets in his numerous houses 
sustained the well deserved reputation of Mr. Sim as a master 
cultivator. 



Estate of B. H. Bristow Draper at Hopedale. 

On July 30 the committee had the pleasure of visiting the estate 
of B. H. Bristow Draper at Hopedale although it happened to be 
the hottest day of the summer with a temperature of 98° in the 
shade. 

The committee was very favorably impressed with Mr. Draper's 
estate which adjoins that of the late Governor Draper. The lawn 

165 



166 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



was of notable interest covering about three acres and was in 
splendid condition and looked quite verdant after several weeks of 
drought although no attempt had been made to water it artificially. 

A pergola of rambler roses was still in splendid bloom and a large 
collection of hardy varieties of roses was noted. A small and neatly 
arranged formal garden with a pool in the center was tastefully 
planted with the best annuals and herbaceous perennials. The 
shrubberies and shade trees all showed that they had received care- 
ful attention, and in fact, the whole estate reflected credit upon 
the horticultural interest of its owner and upon George Piddington, 
the gardener in charge of the grounds. 

Certificates of Honorable Mention were awarded by the com- 
mittee to Mr. Sim and Mr. Draper. 



Richard M. Saltonstall 
John S. Ames 
David R. Craig 
William Nicholson 
Charles Sander 
Charles H. Tenney 



Committee 

on 
Gardens. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON CHILDREN'S 

GARDENS. 

By Henry Saxton Adams, Chairman. 



The annual exhibition of the products of children's gardens, 
held at Horticultural Hall on Saturday and Sunday, September 1st 
and 2nd, 1917, was the largest ever held in our halls, filling as it did 
not only the large and small exhibition halls but also the lecture 
hall. One well remembers the time when our first exhibition only 
filled a portion of the small exhibition hall. We have watched the 
growth of the exhibits from year to year with a great deal of interest 
and have wondered whether it would be possible some time to fill 
all of the halls. This year it was accomplished, all available space 
being occupied. 

It is well to again call attention to the fact that not only have 
our exhibits grown in size but also in the quality of the products 
exhibited, comparing favorably with the regular exhibitions of the 
Society. The number of exhibitors has also increased from year 
to year and we feel very sure that the result of our work will not 
only encourage many children to become successful gardeners but 
will also ultimately encourage them to become active members of 
the Society. 

The appropriations for prizes were the same as the previous year, 
namely, $350.00, of which $200.00 was given by the State for the 
encouragement of agriculture among children and in addition 
$50.00 was given by interested friends making a total of $400.00 all 
of which was awarded to the various exhibitors. 

It may be interesting to print here the news item which appeared 
in the Florists' Exchange on September 8, 1917. 

Children's Garden Exhibition. 

The exhibition at Horticultural Hall on Saturday and Sunday, Sept. 1 
and 2 was the most interesting exhibition held in Boston for some time. 
The three exhibition halls were filled and the quality of the exhibits far 

167 



168 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

excelled anything of the kind that had ever been shown in this city by 
children. There were over 1000 entries, probably the largest number 
ever brought together in an exhibition of this kind. Competition was 
open to all school gardens and to all children in Massachusetts under 18. 
All kinds of vegetables were well grown and many of the classes were hard 
to judge, competition was so close. Onions were especially well done and 
some of them would compare favorably with the fine vegetables coming 
from Lenox. There were nearly 100 entries for Tomatoes and the winner 
of the first prize had six as nearly perfect specimens as the writer has ever 
seen at any exhibition. Potatoes were very well grown, considering the 
earliness of the season. The flower exhibits were also fine, including Asters, 
Dahlias and Gladioli, all nicely staged. The exhibits of wild flowers were 
the largest and most comprehensive the writer has seen in this city for many 
years. One boy had over 100 kinds, correctly named and attractively 
arranged. If children can raise such fine vegetables there is little fear 
of a scarcity of food in this country. 

It is particularly pleasing to your Committee to acknowledge 
at this time the cooperation of the Board of Trustees and various 
Committees. There never was a season in which the encourage- 
ment of gardening among the children was more important and we 
hope for an equally good exhibit this year, although we have been 
obliged to somewhat reduce our schedule. 

A list of the principal awards is appended to this report. 

For the best collection of vegetables from a school garden: 

First. — Greenwood School, Hyde Park . $6 00 

Second. — McKinley School, Brockton 5 00 

Third. — Huntington School, Brockton . . 4 00 

For the best collection of vegetables from a school garden established 
since January 1, 1914: 

First. — Norfolk House Center, Roxbury . . 5 00 

Second. — Industrial School, Dorchester 4 00 

Third. — Agassiz Prevocational School, Jamaica Plain 3 00 

Fourth.— Trescott School, Mattapan 2 00 

Fifth. — Dorchester Neighborhood House . . . 1 00 

For the best collection of vegetables from a school garden within five 
miles of the State House : 

First. — Young People's Garden, Boston 5 00 

Second.— Sterling St. School, Boston 4 00 

Third. — Edward Everett School, Dorchester . . 3 00 

Fourth. — Martin School, Boston ............ 2 00 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON CHILDREN'S GARDENS 169 

For the best collection of flowers from a school garden: 

First. — Young People's Garden, Boston 6 00 

Second. — Winthrop School, Brockton 5 00 

Third. — Industrial School, Dorchester 4 00 

Fourth. — Cary School, Brockton 3 00 

For the best collection of flowers from a school garden within five miles 
of the State House : 

First. — Norfolk House Center, Roxbury 5 00 



For the best collection of vegetables from a child's home garden: 

First. — Emil Erickson, Brockton 5 00 

Second. — Raphael Durando, Jamaica Plain , 4 00 

Third.— Mary Scanlon, Roxbury 3 00 

Fourth.— Wilfred R. Tuttle, Arlington 2 00 

Fifth. — Katharine Kilroy, Jamaica Plain 1 00 



For the best collection of vegetables from a child's home garden within 
five miles of the State House : 

First. — Richard Peterson, Jamaica Plain 3 00 

Second.— Sumner Hersey, Dorchester 2 00 

Third. — William J. Brown, Jamaica Plain 1 00 

Fourth. — Cathleen Galvin, Dorchester 1 00 

Fifth. — Edward Spurr, Dorchester 1 00 



For the best collection of flowers from a child's home garden: 

First. — Gertrude Entner, Boston 5 00 

Second.— Wilfred R. Tuttle, Arlington 4 00 

Third. — Francis Kernan, Dorchester 3 00 

Fourth. — Robert Johnson, Dorchester . 2 00 

Fifth. — Barbara Shaw, Dorchester ........... 1 00 



For the best collection of wild flowers, berries, leaves, and grasses, 
correctly named as far as possible, dried specimens excluded: 

First. — Lester D. Watson, Dorchester 5 00 

Second. — Kenneth R. Craig, Jamaica Plain 4 00 

Third.— Albert Davidson, Melrose 3 00 

Fourth. — Marion L. Carnegie, Dorchester 2 00 



170 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



For the best collection of vegetables from a child's garden put up in 
glass jars by the exhibitor: 

First. — Gertrude Schulz, Roslindale 3 00 

Second. — Margaret Galvin, Dorchester 2 00 

Third.— Milton Canning Club 1 00 



Henry Saxton Adams 
Dr. Harris Kennedy 
Mrs. W. Rodman Peabody 
Miss Margaret A. Rand 
James Wheeler 



Committee 
}> on Children's 
Gardens. 



REPORT OF THE DELEGATE TO THE STATE BOARD OF 
AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR 1917. 

By Edward B. Wilder, Delegate. 



Perhaps the work of the Board that is of most interest to the 
Horticultural Society is comprised in the Nursery Inspection, the 
Apiary Inspection, and the Apple Grading Inspection. 

Nursery imports have necessarily fallen off this year owing to 
the war in Europe. The State now has 146 licensed nurseries. 
After fifteen years of service to the Board, Dr. H. T. Fernald has 
resigned as State Nursery Inspector, and Mr. R. Harold Allen has 
been appointed in his place. 

An important feature of the nursery inspection work for the past 
year has been the extermination of the White Pine Blister Rust. 
This has been carried on in connection with the United States 
Department of Agriculture, both the State and the Nation having 
contributed $50,000 to the work in Massachusetts. The scouting 
for the disease done in 1916 enabled the Nursery Inspector this 
year to pick out certain badly infected areas and eradicate from 
them completely the currants and gooseberries. This was done in 
the hope that these areas might be made safe for the growth of 
white pine. The towns of Warwick, Petersham, Dana, Hardwick, 
Barre, Marshfield, and Ipswich were made eradication areas and 
from these towns the Ribes, wild and cultivated, diseased and 
undiseased, have been entirely eliminated. In connection with 
this work an accurate census of the currant and gooseberry bushes 
in this State has been taken in order to estimate the comparative 
value of these fruits compared to the white pines. 

The apiary inspection service has made a special drive to impress 
both on beekeepers and the public the value and importance of 
honey production, especially in view of the shortage of sugar. 
Special beekeeping agents have been appointed in seventy towns of 
the State who serve without pay and keep the State Inspector 
informed of beekeeping conditions in their localities. A splendid 

171 



172 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

exhibit of honey and apiary appliances was set up at the Eastern 
States Exposition and attracted much attention. 

The year 1917 was the second year in which the Apple 
Grading Law was compulsory. Apple grading laws are gradually 
becoming universal and are now in force in 13 states in the north- 
eastern part of the Union. The quality of the crop in Massachu- 
setts was fifty percent better than in 1916 and as a result a larger 
proportion of the crop was packed as A Grade. Three cases were 
entered in court, and a conviction secured in each case. 

The Public Winter Meeting of the Board was held in Springfield 
in December, 1916, and the Summer Field Meeting was omitted 
on account of the war. 

Owing to the passage of the Anti-Aid Amendment by the Con- 
stitutional Convention and its acceptance by the people, agricul- 
tural societies cannot receive bounty after October 1, 1918. This 
means that the Horticultural Society will be deprived of this source 
of income, and with the other agricultural societies will lose its 
representation on the Board of Agriculture. This will probably 
mean a complete reorganization of the agricultural department 
either by the incoming legislature or the Constitutional Convention 
at its 1918 session. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN FOR 

THE YEAR 1917. 



Several events stand out prominently in the activities of the 
Society during the past year which are worthy of record in this 
report. 

The principal one was the June Outdoor Flower Show, held 
June 2 to 20, on the grounds of the Wentworth Institute on Hunt- 
ington Avenue, Boston, containing an area of three acres. 

On account of the magnitude of the undertaking and the notable 
horticultural display which was produced a record of it should be 
preserved in the annals of the Society. Many of its features will 
long remain in the memory of the visitors and as time passes the 
impressions left by this exhibit seem to grow stronger. It was 
without doubt the most extensive exhibition ever held by the 
Society. 

Seven large tents were provided and filled with the finest pro- 
ductions of the gardener's art; including great collections of 
Orchids, Roses, Azaleas and Wistarias, Rhododendrons, and 
miscellaneous displays of tropical foliage plants, cut flowers, and 
bulbous plants. 

On the outside grounds were numerous plantings of hardy, 
evergreen trees and shrubs, an immense circular bed of pansies, 
and many other collections of seasonable flowering plants. 

One of the most conspicuous and attractive features was the 
rock garden with a goodly-sized pond in the center around which 
were massed naturally arranged rock slopes filled with a great 
variety of rock-loving flowering plants. 

The entire receipts of the opening day were given to the Red 
Cross resulting in a liberal contribution to the funds of this noble 
charity. 

Horticulturally the exhibition was a great success but owing to 
unfortunate weather conditions the financial results were disap- 
pointing and a considerable loss resulted. The season was un- 
usually backward, with rainy weather prevailing most of the time, 

173 



174 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

and the Rhododendrons did not come into full bloom until near the 
end of the show. 

In addition to the open-air show ten other exhibitions were held 
in the Society's building all of which were satisfactory and the 
public interest in them showed no abatement. 

The Spring Flower Show in March was a notable success both 
horticulturally and financially. 

The July Sweet Pea Exhibition was held in conjunction with the 
annual meeting of the American Sweet Pea Society and resulted in 
a display of this popular flower of more than the usual interest. 

The Special Fruit Show of October 31 to November 4 was held 
in conjunction with the Thirty-fifth Biennial Session of the Ameri- 
can Pomological Society and the Fifth Exhibition of the New 
England Fruit Show. All the halls were filled on this occasion 
with an immense display of fruit representing the products of a 
wide range of territory from Canada to Florida. 

The course of lectures held during January, February, and March 
proved satisfactory, an average attendance of 150 people being 
recorded. 

Through the influence of several members of the Board of 
Trustees 57 new life members and 26 new annual members were 
added during the year, making the total membership of the Society 
December 31, 1917, 979. 

On the whole the year has been a noteworthy one in advancing 
the objects for which the Society was established, that of increasing 
the interest in all branches of horticulture. 

The publications of the Society during the year and dates of 
issue are as follow: 

January 12. Schedule of Prizes and Exhibitions, 46 pp. 

May 1. Transactions, 1916, Part II, pp. 146-267, and Plates 
1 and 2. 

July 13. Transactions, 1917, Part I, pp. 1-107. 

September 28. Preliminary Schedule for the exhibitions of 
January, March, and May, 1918, 12 pp. This schedule was later 
withdrawn as far as the money prizes were concerned. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN 175 



The Library. 

The printing of the new catalogue of the library has advanced 
as far as the completion of the first part containing the alphabetical 
list of authors, periodicals, and society publications. Work on 
the second part, that of the classified arrangement of the books, 
is in progress and every effort will be made to complete the entire 
volume during the ensuing year. 

Through the generous gift of Mr. E. B. Dane of the Library 
Committee funds were provided to purchase several valuable books 
on landscape art. Mr. N. T. Kidder and Prof. C. S. Sargent, also 
of the Library Committee, have continued their interest in the 
library by contributing a number of publications which are very 
acceptable additions. The Massachusetts Society for Promoting 
Agriculture presented fifty volumes, mostly pertaining to ancient 
agriculture, all of which are important acquisitions. 

The additions to the collection of horticultural trade catalogues 
during the year have largely increased, 925 having been received 
by gift or purchase, making the total number in this class 10665. 

William P. Rich, 

Secretary and Librarian. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER FOR THE YEAR 1917. 



Massachusetts Horticultural Society in account current with 
Walter Hunnewell, Treasurer, December 81, 1917. 



Dk. 



Paid for Library from Appropriation .... $303 67 

8 " " " J. D. W. French Fund . . 119 46 

8 " " " J. S. Farlow Fund ... 5704 

8 « Heating 2,138 48 

8 " Lighting . . 788 06 

" " Labor 2,037 16 

8 " Stationery and Printing 1,259 80 

8 " Postage ." . 235 00 

" " Insurance 3,959 48 

8 " Incidentals 1,261 13 . 

8 Repairs 224 46 

8 Committee on Lectures and Publications . 325 00 

8 Salaries of Officers ....... 4,545 92 

8 " " Committee on Plants and Flowers 229 00 

8 " " " " Fruits 151 00 

8 " " " " Vegetables . . 129 00 
8 " " " " Prizes & Exhibi- 
tions ... 319 37 

8 " Medals . 414 85 

8 8 Prizes for Plants and Flowers .... 3,947 00 

8 " Prizes for Fruits 1,428 00 

8 8 Prizes for Vegetables ....... 319 00 

8 Prizes for Children's Gardens .... 387 50 

" " J. C. Chaffin Fund 62 00 

8 8 John Lewis Russell Fund 25 00 

8 " G. R. White Medal of Honor Fund . . 261 73 

8 « Library Catalogue 1,000 00 

8 June Outdoor Flower Show ..... 275 32 $26,203 43 

" " $12,000 U. S. Liberty Bonds .... 12,000 00 

Balance Dec. 31, 1917, Treasurer and Bursar . . 2,404 90 

$40,608 33 

177 



178 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Cr. 



Balance December 31, 1916 $17,032 10 

Received Rents 3,996 60 

" Exhibitions 7,383 25 

" less expenses • 5,882 90 1,500 35 

" Membership Fees (873.00. Income a/c, 

1425.00 Perm. Fund) 2,298 00 

" State Bounty 1,000 00 

" Sundry Donations 584 65 

" Mount Auburn Cemetery (634.96 Income 

a/c 634.96 Perm. Fund) 1,269 92 $10,649 52 

" Interest on securities from the following 
funds : 

S. Appleton 40 00 

J. A. Lowell 40 00 

T. Lyman 440 00 

J. Bradlee . . ' 40 00 

B. V. French, No. 1 20 00 

H. H. Hunnewell 160 00 

W. J. Walker 94 16 

L. Whitcomb 20 00 

B. B. Davis ..." 20 00 

M. P. Wilder 40 00 

J. L. Russell 40 00 

F. B. Hayes 400 00 

H. A. Gane 40 00 

J. S. Farlow 100 00 

J. D. W. French 200 00 

B. H. Pierce 32 00 

J. C. Chaffin 40 00 

B. V. French, No. 2 120 00 

G. R. White 300 00 

J. S. Farlow, Newton 116 00 

J.A.French >. 200 00 2,502 16 



Interest and dividends on securities other 
than those for the above funds . . . 



10,424 55 



$40,608 33 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 179 



Assets. 

Real Estate .' . .$518,564 63 

Furniture and Exhibition Ware ...... 10,796 96 

Library 45,110 47 

Plates and History . 235 50 

$2000 Kansas City, Clinton, and Springfield 

Bonds 1,980 00 

10,000 Lake Shore and Mich. So. Bonds . . . 10,415 25 

21,000 City of Newton Bonds 24,228 75 

50,000 Atch. Topeka and S. F. Bonds .... 44,693 25 

50,000 Chicago Burl, and Quincy Bonds . . . 50,012 50 

11,300 Pere Marquette 5 s . . 9,987 50 

25,000 K. C. F. S. and Memphis Bonds . . . 27,523 75 

50,000 C. B. and Q. Illinois Bonds 51,625 00 

8,000 Boston and Maine Bonds 8,710 00 

4,000 Am. Tel. & Tel. 4 % Bonds, 1936 ... 4,110 00 

4,000 United Fruit 5 % Notes, 1918 .... 3,840 00 

4,000 Interboro 5 % Bonds, 1966 3,920 00 

12,000 Pacific Telephone Bonds . . . . . . 11,670 00 

260 shares General Electric Stock 12,909 90 

Hayes and Loring, Trustees 2,308 66 

Cash in hands of Treasurer and Bursar . . . 2,404 90 

5,000 U. S. Liberty Bonds 12,000 00 



$857,047 02 

Liabilities. 

Funds invested in Bonds and Stocks: 

S. Appleton Fund . $1,000 00 

J. A. Lowell " 1,000 00 

T. Lyman " 11,000 00 

J. Bradlee " 1,000 00 

B. V. French, No. 1 " . 500 00 

H. H. Hunnewell " 4,000 00 

W. J. Walker " ........ 2,354 43 

L. Whitcomb " 500 00 

B. B. Davis " •. 500 00 

M. P. Wilder " '. . 1,000 00 

J. L. Russell " 1,035 00 

F. B. Hayes " 10,000 00 

H. A. Gane " 1,224 00 

J. S. Farlow " 2,583 76 

J. D. W. French " 5,323 51 



800 00 


1,228 89 


3,000 00 


5,000 00 


7,711 72 


2,900 42 


670 00 


5,000 00 $69,331 73 


787 ; 715 29 


$857,047 02 



180 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

B. H. Pierce Fund 

J. C. Chaffin 

B. V. French, No. 2 

J. A. French 

G. R, White 

J. S. Farlow, Newton 

Library Catalogue 

Unrestricted Funds 5,000 00 

Capital and Surplus 



Walter Hunnewell, 

Treasurer. 

Membership of Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

December 31, 1917. 

Life Members, December 31, 1916 760 

Added in 1917 . 57 

Changed from Annual 1 

818 

Deceased 21 797 

Annual Members, December 31, 1916 165 

Added in 1917 • 26 

191 

Deceased 2 

Changed to Life 1 

Resigned 3 

Dropped for non-payment of dues 3 9 182 

Membership, December 31, 1917 ... 979 

Income from Membership. 

57 New Life Members at $30 $1,710 00 

26 New Annual Members at $10 . 260 00 

1 Changed to Life 20,00 

Assessments for 1917 308 00 

$2,298 00 

Walter Hunnewell, 

Treasurer. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 181 

STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENSE FOR THE YEAR 1917. 

Income. 

Income from Interest on Investments .... $12,605 00 

" Bank Interest 321 71 $12,926 71 



Rents 3,996 60 

Exhibitions 1,500 35 

State Bounty . 1,000 00 

Membership Fees ....... 873 00 

Donations 684 65 

Sale of Lots in Mt. Auburn Ceme- 
tery 634 96 

Total Income $21,616 27 

Less Interest added to Funds; 

viz; Total Credits to Funds . . . $2,502 16 

Less charges to Funds . . . 2,307 39 194 77 



$21,421 50 



Expense. 

Operating Expense . $16,753 16 

Viz: Salaries $4,545 92 

Insurance 3,959 48 

Heating 2,138 48 

Labor 2,037 16 

Incidentals . . . . . . . 1,261 13 

Stationery & Printing . . . 1,259 80 

Lighting 788 06 

Library Appropriation . . . 303 67 

Postage ,. . 235 00 

Repairs 224 46 

Prizes 6,081 50 

Viz: Plants & Flowers $3,947 00 

Fruit ...■..' 1,428 00 

Children's Gardens .... 387 50 
Vegetables 319 00 

Expenditures by Committees 1,568 22 

Viz: On Medals $414 85 

Lectures and Publications 

Prizes 

Plants 

Fruit 

Vegetables 



325 


00 


319 


37 


229 


00 


151 


00 


129 


00 



182 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Outdoor Flower Show 275 32 

Expense Paid from Funds 525 23 

J. D. W. French Fund $119 46 

J. S. Farlow Fund " 57 04 

White Medal Fund 261 73 

J. Lewis Russell Fund 25 00 

J. C. Claffin Fund 62 00 



$25,203 43 $25,203 43 



Excess of Expense $3,781 93 



AUDITOR'S CERTIFICATE. 



Boston, April 2, 1918. 

To the Finance Committee of the 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Boston. 

Gentlemen: 

We have audited the accounts of the Treasurer and of the Bursar for 
the year ended December 31, 1917, and find all payments supported by 
suitable vouchers and all receipts properly recorded and deposited. 

All securities reported to be on hand on January 1, 1917, or which have 
been acquired since, were seen either to be on hand on the day of the 
examination or were fully accounted for by the records. 

The cash report of the Treasurer was checked and found to be in agree- 
ment with the books, and the decrease in accumulated income due to 
expense payments in excess of income receipts is correctly set forth in the 
income-and-expense statement herewith. 

Very respectfully, 

Harvey S. Chase & Co. 



THE ANNUAL MEETING, NOVEMBER 17, 1917. 



183 



ANNUAL MEETING FOR THE YEAR 1917. 



The Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
for the year 1917 was held at Horticultural Hall, Boston, on Satur- 
day, November 17, at twelve o'clock, noon, with Vice President, 
Nathaniel T. Kidder, in the chair. 

The Secretary announced that the meeting was called in accord- 
ance with the requirements of the By-laws of the Society for the 
purpose of electing a President, a Vice President, four Trustees, 
a Nominating Committee, and a Delegate to the State Board of 
Agriculture for the ensuing year, and for the transaction of such 
other business as might be legally presented. 

The President appointed E. B. Wilder, J. A. Crosby, and W. P. 
Rich a committee to receive, assort, and count the ballots, and 
report the number, and declared the polls open, to remain open 
until three o'clock. 

The record of the preceding meeting of the Society was read by 
the Secretary and duly approved. 

Vice President Kidder stated that in compliance with the provi- 
sions of Section IX. of the By-laws the Board of Trustees had made 
an appropriation of $4500.00 for prizes and gratuities for the year 
1918. 

A recess until three o'clock was declared when the ballot com- 
mittee made report as follows: 

Whole number of ballots cast 20, all of which were for the regular 
nominees. 

Vice President Kidder announced that the following list of 
officers had been duly elected for the year 1918: 

President Richard M. Saltonstall 

Vice President Charles S. Sargent 

(for two years) 
Trustees Thomas Allen 

(for three years) Walter Hunnewell 

Charles W. Moseley 
Thomas Roland 

185 



186 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Delegate to the State Board of 

Agriculture (for three years) 
Nominating Committee 



The meeting was then dissolved. 



Samuel J. Goddard 
John S. Ames 
Robert Cameron 
Thomas Roland 
Edwin S. Webster 
Ernest H. Wilson 



William P. Rich, 

Secretary. 



NECROLOGY, 1917. 



187 



NECROLOGY, 1917. 



Admitted 

1868 Robert Marion Pratt 

1869 Louis B. Harding 

1871 James Macmaster Codman 

1892 Theodore H. Tyndale 

1865 John G. Barker 

1900 Mrs. Oliver Ames, Senior 

1891 Miss Sarah Haskell Crocker 

1870 Franklin Howard Gilson 
1915 Mrs. Harry F. Fay 

1891 Edward E. Norton 

1917 Carlos M. de Heredia 

1905 Philippe L. de Vilmorin 

1900 Edward E. Cole 

1899 George Abbott James 

1914 Mrs. Robert Dawson Evans 

1900 Henry Gregory Jordan 
1852 George B. Durfee 
1863 Abner A. Kingman 

1901 David Welch 
1899 Zenas Crane 



Died 

January 9 

January 12 

January 24 

January 31 

February 7 

March 11 

March 31 

April 19 

May 23 

June 5 

June 15 

June 30 

October 8 

October 13 

October 16 

October 16 

October 29 

November 10 

November 27 

December 17 



189 



OFFICERS, COMMITTEES, AND MEMBERS, 1917. 



191 



assittjjiisdts ||0rtimltaal Snrijetg 



OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES 
FOR 1917 



President 
RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, of Newton 

Vi ce- Presi dents 

WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Boston 
NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, of Milton 

Treasurer 

WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Boston 

Secretary 
WILLIAM P. RICH, of Chelsea* 

Trustees 

THOMAS ALLEN, of Boston 
F. LOTHROP AMES, of Nobth Easton 
GEORGE E. BARNARD, of Ipswich 
ERNEST B. DANE, of Brookline 
WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT, of Boston 
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, of Boston 
JOHN K. M. L. FARQUHAR, of Boston 
ANDREW W. PRESTON, of Boston 
THOMAS ROLAND, of N ah ant 
CHARLES S. SARGENT, of Brookline 
EDWIN S. WEBSTER, of Boston 
STEPHEN M. WELD, of Waeeham 

Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture 
EDWARD B. WILDER, Dorchester 

Nominating Committee 

WILLIAM DOWNS, Chestnut Hill JOHN K. M. L. FARQUHAR, Boston 

NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, Milton MARCELLUS A. PATTEN, Tewksbttry 

WILLIAM SIM, Cliftondale 



* Communications to the Secretary, on the business of the Society, should be 
addressed to him at Horticultural Hall, Boston. 



194 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



COMMITTEES FOR 1917 



Finance Committee 



WALTER HUNNEWELL, Chairman 
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK STEPHEN M. WELD 

Membership Committee 

THOMAS ALLEN GEORGE E. BARNARD 

RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL 

Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions 

JAMES WHEELER, Chairman 
JOHN K. M. L. FARQUHAR DUNCAN FINLAYSON 

T. D. HATFIELD THOMAS ROLAND 

Committee on Plants and Flowers 

WILLIAM ANDERSON, Chairman 

ARTHUR H. FEWKES ARTHUR E. GRIFFIN 

S. J. GODDARD DONALD McKENZIE 

Committee on Fruits 

EDWARD B. WILDER, Chairman 
WILLIAM N. CRAIG ISAAC H. LOCKE 

JAMES METHVEN 

Committee on Vegetables 

JOHN L. SMITH, Chairman 
EDWARD PARKER WILLIAM C. RUST 

Committee on Gardens 

RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, Chairman 
JOHN S. AMES DAVID R. CRAIG 

WILLIAM NICHOLSON CHARLES SANDER 

CHARLES H. TENNEY 

Committee on Library 

CHARLES S. SARGENT, Chairman 
ERNEST B. DANE NATHANIEL T. KIDDER 

Committee on Lectures and Publications 

FRED A. WILSON, Chairman 
LEONARD BARRON NATHANIEL T. KIDDER 

Committee on Children's Gardens 

HENRY S. ADAMS, Chairman 

DR. HARRIS KENNEDY MRS. W. RODMAN PEABODY 

MISS MARGARET A. RAND JAMES WHEELER 



MEMBERS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETY, 1917. 

Revised to December 31, 1917. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Members and correspondents of the Society and all other persons who may 
know of deaths, changes of residence, or other circumstances showing that the 
following lists are inaccurate in any particular, will confer a favor by promptly 
communicating to the Secretary the needed corrections. 



1900 Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, Washington, D. C. 

1900 Albert Viger, President of the National Society of Horticulture of 

France, Paris. 
1897 Hon. James Wilson, Ex-Secretary of Agriculture. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



1901 George Francis Atkinson, Professor of Botany in Cornell Univer- 
sity, Ithaca, N. Y. 

1889 Dr. L. H. Bailey, Ithaca, N. Y. 

1898 John Gilbert Baker, F. R. S., F. L. S., Kew, England. 

1875 Professor William J. Beal, Amherst, Mass. 

1911 W. J. Bean, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 

1911 John Dunbar, Park Department, Rochester, N. Y. 

1887 Sir W. T. Thiselton Dyer, K. C. M. G., F. R. S., "Witcombe," 
Gloucester, England. 

1875 Parker Earle, President of the American Horticultural Society, 
Roswell, N. M. 

1887 H. J. Elwes, F. R. S., Colesborne, Cheltenham, England. 

1889 William G. Farlow, M. D., Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

1893 B. E. Fernow, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario. 

195 



196 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

1900 Dr. Beverly T. Galloway, Department of Agriculture, Washing- 

ton, D. C. 

1877 George Lincoln Goodale, M. D., Cambridge, Mass. 

1895 Professor Byron D. Halsted, Botanist at the New Jersey Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 

1914 C. S. Harrison, York, Nebraska. 

1911 Professor U. P. Hedrick, New York Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Geneva, N. Y. 

1907 Augustine Henry, F. L. S., M. R. I. A., Professor of Forestry, 
Royal College of Science, Dublin, Ireland. 

1897 J. W. Hoffmann, Colored State University, Orangeburg, S. C. 
1906 Senor Don Salvador Izquierdo, Santiago, Chile. 

1911 Emile Lemoine, Nancy, France. 

1875 T. C. Maxwell, Geneva, N. Y. 

1911 J. Ewing Mears, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa. 

1911 Wilhelm Miller, Superintendent of Horticulture, University of 

Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. 

1898 Sir Frederick W. Moore, Curator of the Royal Botanic Gardens, 

Glasnevin, Dublin, Ireland. 
1887 Sir Daniel Morris, C. M. G., D.Sc, M. A., F. L. S. 
1898 Peter N^vik, Secretary of the Norwegian Horticultural Society, 

Christiania, Norway. 

1912 C. Harman Payne, London, England. 

1906 Sir David Prain, C. I. E., C. M. G., F. R. S., Director of the Royal 

Botanic Gardens, Kew, England 
1894 Cavaliere Enrico Ragusa, Palermo, Sicily. 
1906 Dr. Henry L. Ridley, C. M. G., F. R. S., Kew, England. 

1898 Benjamin Lincoln Robinson, Ph.D., Curator of the Gray Her- 

barium of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
1875 William Robinson, London, England. 

1899 William Salway, Superintendent of Spring Grove Cemetery 

Cincinnati, O. 
1875 Robert W. Starr, Wolfville, N. S. 

1893 Professor William Trelease, University of Illinois, Urbana, 

Illinois. 
1882 H. J. Veitch, Chelsea, England. 

1905 Maurice L. de Vilmorin, Paris, France. 

1912 Professor Hugo de Vries, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 
Holland. 

1894 William Watson, Curator of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 

1906 Miss E. Willmott, Essex, England. 
1911 E. H. Wilson, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

1901 Professor L. Wittmack, Secretary of the Royal Prussian Horti- 

cultural Society, Berlin, Prussia. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



197 



LIFE MEMBERS 



1899 Adams, Mrs Charles Francis, 

South Lincoln. 
1907 Adams, George E., Kingston, 

R.I. 

1897 Adams, Henry Saxton, Jamaica 

Plain. 

1899 Agassiz, Mrs. George R., Yar- 
mouth Port. 

1894 Allen, Hon. Charles H., Lowell. 

1916 Allen, Edward Ellis, Water- 
town. 

1905 Allen, Mrs. Sarah R., Wilming- 
ton. 

1898 Allen, Thomas, Boston. 

1899 Ames, F. Lothrop, North 

Easton. 
1914 Ames, Mrs. F. L., North 

Easton. 
1899 Ames, John S., North Easton. 
1894 Ames, Oakes, North Easton. 
1899 Ames, Oliver, North Easton. 
1867 Amory, Frederic, Boston. 

1899 Anderson, Larz, Brookline. 
1911 Anderson, William, South Lan- 
caster. 

1864 Andrews, Charles L., Milton. 
1871 Appleton, Hon. Francis H., 

Boston. 
1914 Appleton, Francis R., New 

York, N. Y. 

1913 Appleton, Henry Saltonstall, 

Boston. 

1914 Apthorp, Mrs. Harrison O., 

Milton. 

1900 Arnold, Mrs. George Francis, 

Brookline. 
1894 Ash, John, Pomfret Centre, 
Conn. 



1890 Atkins, Edwin F., Belmont. 
1914 Ayer, Mrs. Frederick, Boston. 
1899 Ayer, James B., Boston. 

1912 Bache, James S., Sharon, Conn. 
1905 Backer, Clarence A., Melrose. 
1914 Bacon, Miss E. S., Jamaica 

Plain. 
1905 Badger, Walter I., Cambridge. 
1894 Bailey, Jason S., West Roxbury. 
1902 Bailey, Robert M., Dedham. 
1902 Baker, Clifton P., Dedham. 
1901 Baker, James E., South Lincoln. 
1904 Balch, Joseph, Dedham. 
1909 Baldwin, Frank F., Ashland. 
1888 Barber, J. Wesley, Newton. 

1904 Barker, George, Swampscott. 

1905 Barnard, George E., Ipswich. 

1866 Barnes, Walter S., Brookline. 

1904 Barney, Arthur F., Dorchester. 

1867 Barney, Levi C, Boston. 
1917 Barrett, Mrs. William Emerson, 

West Newton. 
1897 Barry, John Marshall, Boston. 
1901 Bartlett, Miss Mary F., Boston. 

1914 Bartol, Dr. John W., Boston. 

1915 Bartsch, Hermann H., Waver- 

ley. 
1901 Bates, Miss Mary D., Ipswich. 
1915 Bauernfeind, John, Medford. 
1899 Baylies, Walter C, Taunton. 
1914 Beal, Mrs. Boylston, Boston. 

1905 Beal, Thomas P., Boston. 
1891 Becker, Frederick C, Cam- 
bridge. 

1876 Beckford, Daniel R., Jr., Ded- 
ham. 
1894 Beebe, E. Pierson, Boston. 



198 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1890 Beebe, Franklin H., Boston. 

1905 Bemis, Frank B., Beverly. 

1914 Bemis, Mrs. Frank B., Beverly. 

1899 Bigelow, Albert S., Cohasset. 

1914 Bigelow, Charles, Brookline. 

1899 Bigelow, Joseph S., Cohasset. 

1899 Bigelow, Dr. William Sturgis, 
Boston. 

1899 Black, George N., Manchester. 

1885 Blake, Mrs. Arthur W., Brook- 
line. 

1914 Blake, Benjamin S., Auburn- 
dale. 

1897 Blake, Edward D., Boston. 

1908 Blood, Eldredge H., Swamp- 
scott. 

1905 Boardman, Miss Eliza D., 
Boston. 

1899 Boardman, T. Dennie, Man- 

chester. 

1914 Boit, Miss Elizabeth E., Wake- 
field. 

1894 Bosler, Frank C, Carlisle, Penn. 

1914 Bowditch, Alfred, Jamaica 
Plain. 

1887 Bowditch, Charles P., Jamaica 
Plain. 

1897 Bowditch, Ernest W., Milton. 

1883 Bowditch, James H., Brookline. 

1894 Bowditch, Nathaniel I., Fram- 
ingham. 

1877 Bowditch, William E., Roxbury. 

1913 Brackett, C. Henry B., Boston. 
1912 Bradley, Charles H., Boston. 

1914 Brandegee, Mrs. Edward D., 

Brookline. 

1900 Breck, Joseph Francis, Waban. 
1914 Breck, Luther Adams, Newton. 
1871 Bresee, Albert, Hubbardton, 

Vt. 

1914 Brewer, Edward M., Milton. 

1914 Brewer, Joseph, Milton. 

1905 Brewster, William, Cambridge. 

1910 Briggs, Mrs. George R., Ply- 
mouth. 

1897 Briggs, William S., Lincoln. 



1873 Brigham, William T., Hono- 
lulu, Hawaii. 

1909 Brooke, Edmund G., Jr., Provi- 
dence, R. I. 

1914 Brooks, Miss Fanny, Readville. 

1914 Brooks, Henry G., Milton. 
1899 Brooks, Peter C, Boston. 
1899 Brooks, Shepherd, Boston. 

1912 Brooks, Walter D., Milton. 
1909 Brown, Mrs. John Carter, Prov- 
idence, R. I. 

1907 Brush, Charles N., Brookline. 

1915 Buckminster, W. B., Maiden. 
1906 Buitta, Vincent, Newton Upper 

Falls. 
1914 Bullard, Alfred M., Milton. 
1897 Burlen, William H., East Hol- 

liston. 

1895 Burnett, Harry, Southborough. 
1911 Burnett, John T., Southbor- 
ough. 

1914 Burnett, Robert M., South- 
borough. 

1914 Burnham, Miss Helen C, Bos- 
ton. 

1909 Burr, I. Tucker, Milton. 

1906 Burrage, Albert C, Boston. 
1868 Butler, Aaron, Wakefield. 

1907 Butterworth, George William, 

South Framingham. 
1906 Butterworth, J. Thomas, South 

Framingham. 
1905 Buttrick, Stedman, Concord. 

1902 Cabot, George E., Boston. 
1914 Cabot, Henry B., Brookline. 
1870 Calder, Augustus P., Brookline. 

1896 Cameron, Robert, Cambridge. 

1913 Campbell, Chester I., Wollas- 

ton. 

1891 Campbell, Francis, Cambridge. 

1905 Carr, Samuel, Boston. 

1893 Carter, Charles N., Needham. 

1899 Casas, W. B. de las, Maiden. 

1911 Case, Miss Marian Roby, Wes- 
ton. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



199 



1873 Chamberlain, Chauncy W., 

Waban. 
1909 Chamberlain, Montague, Gro- 

ton. 
1903 Chapman, ' John L., Prides 

Crossing. 
1878 Chase, Joseph S., Maiden. 

1909 Chase, Philip Putnam, Milton. 

1895 Cheney, Mrs. Elizabeth S., 

Wellesley. 

1894 Christie, William, Everett. 
1876 Clapp, Edward B., Dorchester. 
1871 Clapp, William C, Dorchester. 

1896 Clark, B. Preston, Cohasset. 
1917 Clark, Edward A., Jamaica 

Plain. 
1896 Clark, Miss Eleanor J., Pomfret 

Centre, Conn. 
1907 Clark, Herbert A., Belmont. 
1890 Clark, J. Warren, Millis. 

1910 Clark, Winslow, Milton. 
1899 Clarke, Eliot C, Boston. 
1914 Clifford, Charles P., Milton. 

1895 Clough, Micajah Pratt, Lynn. 
1894 Cobb, John C, Milton. 

1914 Cochrane, Alexander, Boston. 

1906 Codman, Miss Catherine A., 
Westwood. 

1914 Codman, James M., Jr., Brook- 
line. 

1901 Coe, Miss Mary Alma, Boston. 
1903 Cogswell, Edward R., Jr., New- 
ton Highlands. 

1882 Collins, Frank S., North 

Eastham. 
1914 Collins, William J., Brookline. 
1917 Comley, Henry R., Lexington.. 

1902 Comley, Norris F., Lexington. 
1917 Converse, E. W., Newton. 
1899 Converse, Col. H. E., Marion. 

1913 Cook, Thomas N., Watertown. 
1917 Cooley, Arthur N., Pittsfield. 

1914 Coolidge, Charles A., Boston. 
1902 Coolidge, Harold J., Boston. 
1899 Coolidge, J. Randolph, Chest- 
nut Hill. 



1899 Coolidge, Mrs. J. Randolph, 
Chestnut Hill. 

1914 Cotting, Charles E., Boston. 

1914 Cotting, Mrs. Charles E,, Bos- 
ton. 

1892 Cottle, Henry C, Boston. 

1917 Cotton, Miss Elizabeth A., 
Brookline. 

1914 Councilman, Dr. W. T., Boston. 

1917 Cowey, S. R., Walpole, N. H. 

1913 Cox, Simon F., Mattapan. 
1892 Cox, Thomas A., Dorchester. 

1914 Crafts, Miss Elizabeth S., Bos- 

ton. 

1910 Craig, David R., Boston. 

1901 Craig, William Nicol, Brookline. 

1917 Crane, Charles R., New York, 
N. Y. 

1917 Crane, Mrs. R. T., Jr., Chicago, 
111. 

1891 Crawford, Dr. Sarah M., Rox- 
bury. 

1917 Crocker, Mrs. George U., Bos- 
ton. 

1914 Crompton, Miss Isabel M., 
Worcester. 

1887 Crosby, George E., West Med- 
ford. 

1914 Crosby, Mrs. S. V. R., Boston. 

1901 Cross, Alfred Richard, North 
Cohasset. 

1909 Cumner, Mrs. Nellie B., Brook- 
line. 

1856 Curtis, Charles F., Jamaica 
Plain. 

1899 Curtis, Charles P., Boston. 

1906 Cutler, Mrs. Charles F., Boston. 

1903 Cutler, Judge Samuel R., Re- 
vere. 

1897 Damon, Frederick W., Arling- 
ton. 

1908 Dane, Ernest B., Brookline. 

1908 Dane, Mrs. Ernest B., Brook- 
line. 

1899 Daniels, Dr. Edwin A., Boston. 



200 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1909 Danielson, Mrs. J. DeForest, 
Boston. 

1892 Davenport, Albert M., Water- 

town. 
1902 Davis, Arthur E., Dover. 
1902 Davis, Mrs. Arthur E., Dover. 

1913 Davis, Bancroft Chandler, Wes- 

ton. 

1916 Davis, Miss Helen I., Wellesley. 

1914 Davis, Livingston, Milton. 

1909 Dawson, Henry Sargent, Ja- 

maica Plain. 
1905 Day, Henry B., West Newton. 

1917 Day, Mrs. Mary E., Newton. 
1873 Denny, Clarence H., Boston. 
1917 Dexter, George T., Boston. 
1904 Dexter, Gordon, Beverly Farms. 
1904 Dexter, Philip, Beverly. 

1866 Dike, Charles C, Stoneham. 
1896 Donald, William, Cold Spring 

Harbor, N. Y. 
1900 Donaldson, James, Roxbury. 
1907 Doten, Scott T., Lincoln. 
1917 Doty, George H., Boston. 

1914 Douglass, Alfred, Brookline. 
1917 Downs, Jere Arthur, Win- 
chester. 

1910 Downs, William, Chestnut Hill. 
1917 Dowse, Charles F., Boston. 

1893 Dowse, William B. H., West 

Newton. 
1917 Draper, B. H. Bristow, Hope. 

dale. 
1899 Draper, George A., Hopedale- 

1896 Dreer, William F., Philadelphia, 

Pa. 

1897 Dumaresq, Herbert, Chestnut 

Hill. 
1899 Duncan, James L., New York, 

N. Y. 
1902 Duncan, John W., Spokane, 

Wash. 
1896 Dunlap,James H.,Nashua,N.H. 

1915 Dunn, Stephen Troyte, F.L.S., 

F.R.G.S., Kew, England. 
1915 Dupee, William Arthur, Milton. 



1909 Dupuy, Louis, Whitestone, 
L. I., N. Y. 

1880 Dutcher, Frank J., Hopedale. 
1917 Dutcher, Miss Grace M., Hope- 
dale. 

1902 Dyer, Herbert H., Arlington. 

1912 Eaton, Harris D., Southbor- 
ough. 

1911 Edgar, Mrs. Rose H., Waverley. 

1912 Edgar, William Percival, Ja- 

maica Plain. 

1895 Eldredge, H. Fisher, Boston. 

1887 Elliott, Mrs. John W., Boston. 

1888 Elliott, William H., Brighton. 

1903 Ellsworth, J. Lewis, Worcester. 
1907 Emerson, Nathaniel W., M.D., 

Boston. 

1917 Emmons, Mrs. R. M., 2nd, 
Boston. 

1894 Endicott, William, Boston. 

1899 Endicott, William C, Danvers. 

1915 Ernst, Mrs. Harold C, Ja- 
maica Plain. 

1897 Estabrook, Arthur F., Boston. 

1905 Estabrook, Mrs. Arthur F., 
Boston. 

1907 Eustis, Miss Elizabeth M., 
Brookline. 

1907 Eustis, Miss Mary St. Barbe, 
Brookline. 

1914 Evans, Mrs. Robert D., Boston. 

1915 Fairbanks, Charles F., Milton. 

1881 Fairchild, Charles, New York, 

N. Y. 
1877 Falconer, William, Pittsburg,Pa. 
1884 Farlow, Lewis H., Boston. 

1896 Farnsworth, Mrs. William Ded- 

ham. 

1890 Farquhar, James F. M., Roslin- 

dale. 

1891 Farquhar, John K. M. L., 

Roxbury. 
1915 Farquhar, Mrs. John K. M. L., 
Roxbury. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



201 



1884 Farquhar, Robert, North Cam- 

bridge. 
1873 Faxon, John, Quincy 
1899 Fay, H. H., Woods Hole. 

1908 Fay, Wilton B., West Medford. 
1914 Fearing, George R., Jr., Boston. 
1917 Fenno, Mrs. Pauline Shaw, 

Rowley. 
1899 Fessenden, George B., Allston. 
1917 Fessenden, Sewell H., Boston. 
1883 Fewkes, Arthur H., Newton 

Highlands. 
1904 Finlayson, * Duncan, Jamaica 

Plain. 
1892 Finlayson, Kenneth, Jamaica 

Plain. 
1901 Fisher, Peter, Ellis. 

1910 Flanagan, Joseph F., Newton. 

1882 Fletcher, George V., Belmont. 

1883 Fletcher J. Henry, Belmont. 
1917 Foot, Nathan Chandler, M.D., 

Milton. 
1914 Forbes, Alexander, M.D., Mil- 
ton. 

1909 Forbes, Charles Stewart,Boston. 
1909 Forbes, Mrs. J. Malcolm, Milton. 
1914 Forbes, W. Cameron, West- 
wood. 

1909 Forbes, Mrs.WiUiam H.,Milton. 
1917 Fosdick, Lucian J., Boston. 
1914 Foster, Alfred D., Milton. 
1899 Foster, Charles H. W., Need- 
ham. 

1917 Foster, Miss Fanny, Newport, 
R. I. 

1885 Fottler, John, Jr., Dorchester. 
1881 Fowle, George W., Jamaica 

Plain. 
1914 Fraser, Charles E. K., South 
Natick. 

1911 Freeman, Mrs. James G., Bos- 

ton. 

1910 French, Mrs. Albert M., Read- 

ing. 

1892 French, S. Waldo, Newtonville. 

1893 French, W. Clifford, Brookline. 



1917 Frishmuth, Miss Anna Biddle, 

Boston. 
1882 Frohock, Roscoe R., Boston. 

1903 Frost, Harold L., Arlington. 

1900 Frost, Irving B., Belmont. 
1899 Frothingham, Mrs. Louis A., 

Boston. 

1917 Gage, Mrs. Homer, Worcester. 

1910 Galloupe, Frederic R., Lexing- 
ton. 

1914 Gannett, Samuel, Milton. 

1914 Gardiner, Robert H., Gardiner, 
Maine. 

1901 Gardner, Mrs. Augustus P., 

Hamilton. 

1895 Gardner, George P., Boston. 

1899 Gardner, John L., Boston. 

1899 Gardner, Mrs. John L., Brook- 
line. 

1899 Gardner, William Amory, Gro- 
ton. 

1910 Garland, Mrs. Marie T., Buz- 

zards Bay. 

1904 Garratt, Allan V., Holliston. 
1899 Gaston, William A., Boston. 

1911 Gavin, Frank D., Manchester. 

1910 Geiger, Albert, Jr., Brookline. 

1911 Gill, Miss Adeline Bradbury, 

Medford. 

1911 Gill, Miss Eliza M., Medford. 
1865 GUI, Mrs. E. M., Medford. 
1887 Gill, George B., Medford. 
1907 Goddard, Samuel J., Framing- 
ham. 

1904 Goodale, Dr. Joseph L., Boston. 
1885 Goodell, L. W., Dwight. 

1917 Gordan, Donald, Lincoln. 
1899 Gray, Mrs. John C, Boston. 
1914 Greene, Edwin Farnham, Bos- 
ton. 

1905 Greenough, Mrs. Charles P., 

Brookline. 

1912 Greenough, Mrs. David S., 

Jamaica Plain. 
1914 Grew, Mrs. Edward S., Boston. 



202 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1914 Grew, Edward W., Boston. 

1897 Hale, James O., Byfield. 
1873 Hall, Edwin A., Cambridgeport. 

1912 Hall, Mrs. George G., Boston. 
1899 Hall, Jackson E., Cambridge. 
1897 Hall, Osborn B., Maiden. 
1910 Halloran, Edward J., Roxbury. 
1917 Hammond, Mrs. E. C, Au- 

burndale. 

1913 Handler, Max Paul, South 

Natick. 

1914 Harding, Charles L., Dedham. 
1871 Hardy, F. D., Cambridgeport. 

1905 Hardy, Miss Susan White, 

Boston. 
1889 Hargraves, William J., Jamaica 
Plain. 

1887 Harris, Thaddeus William, A. 

M., Littleton, N. H. 

1910 Harris, Prof. William Fenwick, 
Cambridge. 

1909 Hart, Francis R., Milton. 

1899 Hartshorn, Arthur E., Worces- 
ter. 

1914 Hartt, Arthur W., Brookline. 

1895 Harwood, George Fred, New- 
ton. 

1884 Hastings, Levi W., Brookline. 

1906 Hauthaway, Edwin D., Sharon. 
1^14 Havemeyer, Theodore A., New 

York, N. Y. 

1891 Hawken, Mrs. Thomas, Rock- 
land, Me. 

1899 Hayward, George P., Chestnut 
Hill. 

1914 Haywood, H. T., Franklin. 

1905 Head, Thomas W., Lake Forest, 
111. 

1913 Heeremans, F., Lenox. 

1903 Hellier, Charles E., Boston. 

1888 Hemenway, Augustus, Canton. 
1899 Hemenway, Mrs. Augustus, 

Canton. 



1914 Hemenway, Augustus, Jr., Bos- 
ton. 
1884 Henshaw, Joseph P. B., Boston. 

1899 Henshaw, Samuel, Cambridge. 
1917 Heredia, Carlos, M. de, Lenox.* 

1901 Heurlin, Julius, South Braintree. 

1894 Hewett, Miss Mary Crane, 

Cambridge. 

1900 Higginson, Francis L., Boston. 

1902 Higginson, Mrs. Henry L., 

Boston. 
1866 Hilbourn, A. J. Boston. 
1886 Hittinger, Jacob, Belmont. 

1911 Hittinger, Richard, Belmont. 

1895 Hoitt, Hon. Charles W., 

Nashua, N. H. 

1905 Holbrook, E. Everett, Boston. 

1914 Hollings worth, Valentine, Bos- 
ton. 

1899 Hollingsworth, Z. T., Boston. 
1881 Hollis, George W., Allston. 
1891 Holmes, Edward J., Boston. 
1876 Holt, Mrs. Stephen A., Cam- 
bridge. 

1900 Holt, William W., Norway, 

Maine. 

1899 Hood, The Hon. Mrs. Ellen, 
. Sheen, Surrey, Eng. 

1914 Hornblower, Henry, Boston. 

1888 Horsford, Miss Kate, Cam- 
bridge. 

1912 Horton, Arthur E., Lexington. 
1902. Hosmer, Oscar, Wenham. 
1907 Houghton, Clement S., Chest- 
nut Hill. 

1910 Houghton, Miss Elizabeth G., 
Boston. 

1872 Hovey, Charles H., South 
Pasadena, Cal. 

1884 Hovey, Stillman S., Woburn. 

1917 Howard, Everett C, Belcher- 
town. 

1904 Howard, Henry M., West New- 
ton. 



* Died June 15, 1917. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



203 



1896 Howard, Joseph W., Somerville. 

1915 Howes, Mrs. Ernest, Boston. 
1917 Howes, Osborne, Brookline. 
1896 Hubbard, Charles Wells, Wes- 
ton. 

1917 Hubbard, Eliot, Boston. 
1865 Hubbard, James C, Everett. 

1913 Huebner, H., Groton. 

1875 Humphrey, George W., Ded- 
ham. 

1917 Hunnewell, Mrs. Arthur, 
Wellesley. 

1912 Hunnewell, F. W., 2d., Welles- 
ley. 

1893 Hunnewell, Henry Sargent, 
Wellesley. 

1912 Hunnewell, Mrs. Henry S., 
Wellesley. 

1882 Hunnewell, Walter, Wellesley. 

1912 Hunnewell, Walter, Jr., Welles- 

ley. 
1917 Hunt, Miss Belle, Boston. 

1892 Hunt, Dudley F., Reading. 
1880 Hunt, William H., Concord. 

1904 Hutchins, Rev. Charles Lewis, 

Concord. 

1893 Jack, John George, East Wal- 

pole. 
1886 Jackson, Charles L., Boston. 

1914 Jackson, Mrs. James, Jr., West- 

wood. 
1884 Jackson, Robert T., Peter- 
borough, N. H. 

1916 Jahn, Paul H., East Bridge- 

water. 

1916 Jahn, William O., East Bridge- 
water. 

1902 James, Ellerton, Milton. 

1902 James, Mrs. Ellerton, Milton. 

1913 Jeffries, John Temple L., Cam- 

bridge. 
1899 Jeffries, William A., Boston. 
1865 Jenks, Charles. W., Bedford. 

1905 Johnson, Arthur S., Boston. 

1914 Johnson, Edward C, Boston. 



1885 Johnson, J. Frank, Maiden. 
1907 Jones, Mrs. Clarence W. r 

Brookline. 
1897 Jones, Dr. Mary E., Boston. 

1897 Kellen, William V., Marion. 

1886 Kelly, George B., Jamaica 

Plain. 
1848 KendaU, D.S., Woodstock, Ont. 
1891 Kendall, Dr. Walter G., At- 

• lantic. 
1868 Kennedy, George G., M. D., 

Milton. 

1909 Kennedy, Harris, M. D., Mil- 

ton. 

1905 Keyes, Mrs. Emma Mayer, 

Boston. 

1891 Keyes, John M., Concord. 

1889 Kidder, Charles A., South- 
borough. 

1910 Kidder, Mrs. Henry P., Boston. 
1880 Kidder, Nathaniel T., Milton. 
1899 Kimball, David P., Boston. 

1903 Kimball, Richard D., Waban. 
1899 King, D. Webster, Boston. 
1899 Kinney, H. R., Worcester. 

1906 Kinnicutt, Mrs. Leonard P., 

Worcester. 

1904 Kirkland, Archie Howard, 

Reading. 

1899 Lamb, Horatio A., Milton. 

1913 Lancaster, Dr. Walter B., 

Brookline. 
1899 Lanier, Charles, Lenox. 
1917 Lapham, Henry G., Brookline. 
1895 Lawrence, Amos A., New York, 

N. Y. 
1873 Lawrence, John, Groton. 
1899 Lawrence, Rt. Rev. William, 

Boston. 
1895 Lee, Daniel D., Jamaica Plain. 

1914 Lee, George C, Westword. 
1914 Lee, Mrs. George C.,Westwood. 
1880 Leeson, Hon. Joseph R., New- 
ton Centre. 



204 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1902 Leighton, George B., Monad- 

nock, N. H. 

1914 Leland, Lester, Boston. 

1914 Leland, Mrs. Lester, Boston. 

1871 Lemme, Frederick, Charles- 
town. 

1903 Libby, Charles W., Medford. 
1917 Liggett, Louis K., Chestnut 

HiU. 
1899 Little, John Mason, Swamp- 

scott. 
1899 Locke, Isaac H., Belmont. 

1891 Lodge, Richard W., Redlands, 

Cal. 

1897 Loomis, Elihu G., Bedford. 
1899 Loring, Augustus P., Beverly. 
1905 Loring, David, Boston. 

1914 Loring, Miss Katharine P., 
Prides Crossing. 

1914 Loring, Miss Louisa P., Prides 
Crossing. 

1899 Loring, Mrs. William Caleb, 
Beverly. 

1899 Lowell, Abbott Lawrence, Bos- 
ton. 

1902 Lowell, Miss Amy, Brookline. 

1903 Lowell, James A., Chestnut 

HiU. 

1903 Lowell, John, Newton. 

1904 Lowell, Miss Lucy, Boston. 
1917 Luke, Arthur F., West Newton. 
1899 Luke, Otis H., Brookline. 
1895 Lunt, William W., Hingham. 
1914 Lyman, C. Frederic, Boston. 
1895 Lyman, George H., Wareham. 

1898 Mabbett, George, Plymouth. 
1912 McKay, Alexander, Jamaica 

Plain. 
1911 McKenzie, Donald, Chestnut 

HiU. 
1868 Mahoney, John, Boston. 

1892 MaUett, E. B., Jr., Freeport, 

Me. 
1884 Manda, W. A., South Orange, 
N.J. 



1873 Mann, James F., Ipswich. 

1887 Manning, J. Woodward, Read- 

ing. 

1884 Manning, Warren H., Brook- 
line. 

1909 Marlborough, James, Topsfield. 

1913 Marshall, A. A., Fitchburg. 
1876 MarshaU, Frederick F., Everett. 

1898 Marston, Howard, BrookUne. 
1917 Martin, Edwin S., Chestnut 

Hill. 

1899 Mason, Miss Ellen F., Boston. 
1896 Mason, Col. Frederick, Taun- 
ton. 

1914 Mathews, Miss Elizabeth Ash- 

by, Newton Center. 

1901 Matthews, Nathan, Boston. 
1906 MaxweU, George H., Newton. 
1917 Mead, Francis V., West Somer- 

viUe. 

1902 Melvin, George, South Fram- 

ingham. 
1905 Meredith, J. Morris, Topsfield. 
1881 Merriam, Herbert, Weston. 
1917 Methven, James, ReadvUle. 
1884 Metivier, James, Waltham. 
1914 Meyer, George von L., HamU- 

ton. 
1914 Mifflin, George H., Boston. 

1914 MUler, Peter M., Mattapan. 

1888 MUmore, Mrs. Joseph, Wash- 

ington, D. C. 
1917 Mink, OUver W., Boston. 

1915 Minot, Mrs. Charles S., Read- 

viUe. 
1908 Minot, Laurence, Boston. 
1892 Monteith, David, Hyde Park, 

Vt. 
1896 Montgomery, Alexander, Na- 

tick. 
1902 Montgomery, Alexander, Jr., 

Natick. 

1896 Moore, George D., ArUngton. 
1881 Moore, John H., Concord. 

1897 Morgan, George H., New York, 

N. Y. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



205 



1914 Morgan, Mrs. J. P., New York, 
N. Y. 

1913 Morison, Robert S., Cam- 
bridge. 

1899 Morse, John T., Boston. 

1909 Morse, John Torrey, 3d., Bos- 

ton. 

1910 Morse, Lewis Kennedy, Box- 

ford. 

1913 Morse. Robert C, Milton. 

1900 Morse, Robert M., Jamaica 

Plain. 

1914 Morss, Charles A., Chestnut 

Hill. 

1914 Morss, Mrs. Charles A., Chest- 
nut Hill. 

1902 Morton, James H., Huntington, 
N. Y. 

1896 Moseley, Charles H., Roxbury. 

1909 Moseley, Charles W., New- 
buryport. 

1896 Moseley, Frederick Strong, 

Newburyport. 

1914 Munroe, Howard M., Lexing- 
ton. 

1900 Murray, Peter, Fairhaven. 

1897 Mutch, John, Waban. 

1917 Neal, James A., Brookline. 

1899 Nevins, Mrs. David, Methuen. 

1914 Newbold, Frederic R., New 
York, N. Y. 

1874 Newman, John R., Winchester. 

1874 Newton, Rev. William W., 
Pittsfield. 

1914 Nicholson, William R., Fram- 
ingham. 

1906 Nickerson, William E., Cam- 
bridge. 
• .1914 Norman, Mrs. Louisa P., New- 
port, R. I. 

1881 Norton, Charles W., Allston. 

1912 O'Conner, John, Brookline. 

1898 Olmsted, Frederick Law, Jr., 

Brookline. , 



1892 Olmsted, John C, Brookline. 

1898 Orpet, Edward O., Chico, Cal. 
1917 Osgood, Miss Fanny C, Hope- 
dale. 

1909 Page, George, Newton High- 
lands. 

1909 Page, George William, South 
Lincoln. 

1900 Page, Mrs. Henrietta, Cam- 
bridge. 

1884 Paige, Clifton H., Mattapan. 

1914 Paine, Robert Treat, 2d, Bos- 

ton. 

1908 Parker, Augustine H., Dover. 

1913 Parker, Edgar, North Easton. 
1911 Parker, Edward, North Easton. 

1915 Parker, Miss Eleanor S., Bed- 

ford. 
1917 Parkhurst, Lewis, Winchester. 
1891 Parkman, Henry, Boston. 

1899 Parsons, John E., Lenox. 

1914 Patten, Miss Jane B., South 

Natick. 
1897 Patten, Marcellus A., Tewks- 
bury. 

1909 Peabody, Francis, Milton. 
1909 Peabody, Mrs. Francis, Milton. 
1905 Peabody, Frank E., Boston. 
1899 Peabody, George A., Danvers. 
1881 Peabody, John E., Salem. 
1907 Peirce, E. Allan, Waltham. 

1916 Peirce, Edward R., Wellesley 

Farms. 

1914 Peirson, Charles Lawrence, 

Boston. 

1915 Penn, Henry, Brookline. 

1899 Pentecost, Mrs. Ernest Harvey, 

Topsfield. 
1873 Perry, George W,, Maiden. 

1917 Peterson, George H., Fair- 

Lawn, N. J. 

1899 Pfaff, Col. Charles, South 

Framingham. 

1900 Phillips, John C, North Bev- 

erly. 



206 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1899 Phillips, Mrs. John C, North 
Beverly. 

1899 Phillips, William,North Beverly. 
1895 Pickman, Dudley L., Boston. 

1902 Pickman, Mrs. Ellen R., Boston. 

1881 Pierce, Dean, Brookline. 
1892 Pierce, George Francis, Ne- 

ponset. 
1905 Pierce, Wallace L., Boston. 
1905 Pierson, Frank R., Tarry town, 

N. Y. 
1914 Pingree, David, Salem. 

1900 Pond, Preston, Winchester. 
1892 Porter, James C, Wollaston. 
1884 Pratt, Laban, Dorchester. 
1914 Pratt, Waldo E., WeUesley 

Hills. 

1898 Pray,James Sturgis,Cambridge. 

1899 Prendergast, James M., Boston. 
1858 Prescott, Eben C, New York, 

N. Y. 
1914 Preston, Andrew W., Swamp- 
scott. 

1903 Preston, Howard Willis, Provi- 

dence, R. I. 

1911 Priest, Lyman F., Gleason- 

dale. 

1912 Proctor, Henry H., Boston. 

1901 Proctor, Thomas E., Boston. 

1899 Putnam, George, Manchester. 

1900 Putnam, George J., Brookline. 

1886 Quimby, Hosea M., M.D., Wor- 
cester. 

1889 Rand, Harry S., North Cam- 

bridge. 

1908 Rand, Miss Margaret A., Cam- 
bridge. 

1903 Rawson, Herbert W., Arling- 
ton. 

1882 Ray, James F., Franklin. 

1890 Raymond, Walter, Pasadena, 

Cal. 

1891 Read, Charles A., Manchester. 

1902 Reardon, Edmund, Cambridge. 



1892 Reardon, John B., Boston. 
1912 Reiff, William, Forest Hills. 
1905 Remick, Frank W., West New- 
ton. 
1889 Rice, George C, Worcester. 
1887 Rich, William P., Chelsea. 
1876 Richards, John J., Brookline. 

1899 Richardson, Mrs. F. L. W,, 

Charles River Village. 
1912. Richardson, H. H., Brookline. 

1900 Richardson, Dr. William L., 

Boston. 

1905 Riggs. William Allan, Auburn- 
dale. 

1917 Riley, Charles E., Newton. 

1886 Ripley, Charles, Dorchester. 

1892 Ripley, Ebed L., Hingham 

Centre. 

1903 Robb, Russell, Concord. 

1909 Roberts, Miss Anna B., Bos- 
ton. 

1909 Robinson, Alfred E., Lexing- 

ton. 
1871 Robinson, John, Salem. 
1900 Rodman, Miss Mary, Concord. 

1911 Rogers, Dexter M., Allston. 
1914 Rogers, Dudley P., Danvers. 

1899 Rogers, Mrs. Jacob C, Pea- 

body. 

1900 Roland, Thomas, Nahant. 

1910 Ross, Harold S., Hingham. 
1895 Rothwell, James E., Brookline. 

1899 Roy, David Frank, Marion. 
1881 Ruddick, William H., M. D., 

South Boston. 
1917 Rueter, Mrs. C. J., Jamaica 

Plain. 
1875 Russell, George, Woburn. 

1900 Russell, James S., Milton. 

1914 Russell, Mrs. Robert S., Boston. 

1893 Salisbury, William C. G., Brook- 

line. 

1915 Saltonstall, Mrs. Caroline S., 

Milton. 

1912 Saltonstall, John L., Beverly. 






LIFE MEMBERS 



207 



1912 Saltsonstall, Mrs. John L., Bev- 
erly. 

1899 Saltonstall, Richard M., Chest- 

nut Hill. 

1898 Sanger, Mrs. George P., Bos- 

ton. 

1900 Sargent, Andrew Robeson, 

Brookline. 
1870 Sargent, Charles S., Brookline. 

1899 Sargent, Mrs. Charles S., 

Brookline. 

1902 Sargent, Charles Sprague, Jr., 

Brookline. 
1899 Sargent, Mrs. Francis W., Wel- 

lesley. 
1896 Scorgie, James C, Cambridge. 

1864 Scott, Charles, Newton. 
1895 Sears, Miss Clara E., Boston. 
1899 Sears, Dr. Henry F., Boston. 
1914 Sears, Horace S., Weston. 
1899 Sears, Mrs. J. Montgomery, 

Boston. 

1898 Sharp, Miss Helen, Boston. 
1914 Shattuck, Dr. Frederick C, 

Boston. 
1914 Shattuck, Mrs. Frederick C, 
Boston. 

1899 Shaw, Francis, Wayland. 
1914 Shaw, Henry S., Milton. 

1899 Shaw, Mrs. Robert G., Welles- 
ley. 

1901 Shea, James B., Jamaica Plain. 
1906 Sherman, J. P. R., Newton. 

1865 Shorey, John L., Lynn. ' 

1892 Shuman, Hon. A., Boston. 
1901 Shurtleff, Josiah B., Revere. 

1893 Siebrecht, H. A., New Rochelle, 

N. Y. 
1917 Silber, Miss Charlotte G., 

Needham. 
1917 Silsbee, Miss Katharine E., 

Boston. 
1899 Sleeper, Henry Davis, Boston. 

1903 Smiley, Daniel, Lake Mohonk, 

N. Y. 
1888 Smith, Charles S., Lincoln. 



1872 Smith, Edward N., San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

1911 Smith, John L., Swampscott. 

1888 Smith, Thomas Page, Waltham. 
1874 Snow, Eugene A., Cambridge. 
1899 Sohier, Col. William D., Bev- 
erly. 

1908 Spaulding, John T., Prides 

Crossing. 
1908 Spaulding, William S., Prides 

Crossing. 
1897 Sprague, Isaac, Wellesley Hills. 

1884 Stearns, Charles H., Brookline. 
1893 Stearns, Frank W., Newton. 
1896 Stedman, Henry R., M. D., 

Brookline. 
1914 Stevens, Mrs. Nathaniel, North 
Andover. 

1885 Stewart, William J., Winchester. 

1901 Stone, Charles A., Newton. 

1889 Stone, Charles W., Boston. 
1910 Stone, Mrs. Francis H., South 

Dartmouth. 

1914 Stone, Galen L., Brookline. 

1896 Stone, Prof. George E., Am- 
herst. 

1849 Stone, George F., Chestnut 
Hill. 

1914 Stone, J. Winthrop, Watertown. 

1914 Stone, Nathaniel H., Milton. 

1917 Storey, Moorfield, Boston. 

1905 Storrow, James J., Boston. 

1905 Stratton, Charles E., Boston. 

1906 Strout, Charles S., Biddeford, 

Me. 
1914 Sturgis, Miss Evelyn R., Man- 
chester. 

1902 Sturgis, Richard Clipston, Bos- 

ton. 

1916 Sturtevant, Miss Grace, Wel- 
lesley Farms. 

1910 Sullivan, Martin, Jamaica 
Plain. 

1912 Swan, Charles H., Jamaica 

Plain. 
1891 Sweet, Everell F., Maiden. 



208 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1916 Swett, Raymond W., Saxon- 

ville. 
1904 Sylvester, Edmund Q., Han- 
over. 

1899 Taylor, Charles H., Boston. 

1900 Taylor, Mrs. Thomas, Jr., 

Columbia, S. C. 
1913 Tedcastle, Mrs. Arthur W., 

Hyde Park. 
1896 Tenney, Charles H., Methuen. 

1917 Thacher, Miss Elizabeth B., 

Roxbury. 

1912 Thatcher, Arthur E., Bar Har- 

bor, Me. 

1898 Thatcher, William, Brookline. 

1899 Thayer, Mrs. Alice R., Boston. 

1900 Thayer, Mrs. Bayard, South 

Lancaster. 

1899 Thayer, Mrs. Eugene V. R., 
South Lancaster. 

1903 Thayer, Henry J., Boston. 

1899 Thayer, John E., South Lan- 
caster. 

1899 Thayer, Mrs. John E., South 
Lancaster. 

1899 Thayer, Mrs. Nathaniel, Lan- 
caster. 

1899 Thiemann, Hermann, Owosso, 
Mich. 

1899 Thomas, W. B., Manchester. 

1910 Thurlow, George C, West 
Newbury. 

1913 Thurlow, Winthrop H., West 

Newbury. 

1874 Tolman, Miss Harriet S., Bos- 
ton. 

1896 Toppan, Roland W., Maiden. 

1899 Tower, Miss Ellen May, Lex- 
ington. 

1901 Tower, Mrs. Helen M., Cam- 

bridge. 

1914 Towle, L. D., Newton. 

1893 Trepess, Samuel J., Glencove, 

L. I., N. Y. 
1917 Tufts, Bowen, Medford. 



1910 Turner, Chester Bidwell, 

Stoughton. 
1914 Tyler, Charles H., Boston. 

1910 Underwood, Henry O., Belmont. 
1901 Underwood, Loring, Belmont. 

1917 Van Brunt, Mrs. Agnes, Read- 
ville. 

1873 Vander-Woerd, Charles, Wal- 
tham. 

1899 Vaughan, William Warren, Bos- 
ton. 

1884 Vinal, Miss Mary L., Somer- 
ville. 

1916 Wagstaff, Archibald, Wellesley 

Hills. 
1909 Wainwright, Arthur, Milton. 
1849 Wakefield, E. H., Cambridge. 
1876 Walcott, Henry P., M. D., 

Cambridge. 

1895 Waldo, C. Sidney, Jamaica 

Plain. 
1914 Walker, William B., Man- 
chester. 

1896 Walsh, Michael H., Woods 

Hole. 

1901 Waltham, George C, Dorches- 

ter. 
1907 Walton, Arthur G., Wakefield. 

1902 Warburton, Chatterton, Fall 

River. 

1912 Wardwell, Mrs. T. Otis, Haver- 
hill. 

1894 Ware, Miss Mary L., Boston. 

1909 Warren, Bentley W., Boston. 

1889 Watson, Benjamin M., Jamaica 
Plain. 

1884 Watson, Thomas A., East 
Braintree. 

1914 Watters, W. F., Boston. 

1905 Webster, Edwin S., Chestnut 
Hill. 

1914 Webster, Mrs. Edwin S., Chest- 
nut Hill. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



209 



1905 Webster, Frank G., Boston. 
1907 Webster, George H., Haver- 
hill. 

1896 Webster, Hollis, Cambridge. 
1905 Webster, Laurence J., Holder- 

ness, N. H. 

1909 Weeks, Andrew Gray, Marion. 

1902 Welch, Edward J., Dorchester. 

1914 Weld, Mrs. Charles G., Brook- 
line. 

1884 Weld,Christopher Minot,Read- 
ville. 

1917 Weld, Rudolph, Boston. 

1899 Weld, Gen. Stephen M., Ware- 
ham. 

1914 Weld, Mrs. Stephen M., Ware- 
ham. 

1912 Wellington, Mrs. Arthur W., 
Boston. 

1917 Wellington, William H., Boston. 

1882 West, Mrs. Maria L., Nepon- 
set. 

1887 Wheeler, Frank, Concord. 

1889 Wheeler, James, Natick. 

1897 Wheeler, Wilfrid, Concord. 
1865 Whitcomb, William B., Med- 

ford. 

1901 White, Mrs. Charles T., Bos- 
ton. 

1899 White, George R., Boston. 

1909 White, Harry K., Milton. 

1917 Whitehouse, Mrs. Francis M., 
Manchester. 

1905 Whitman, William, Brookline. 

1894 Whitney, Arthur E., Winches- 
ter. 

1894 Whitney, Ellerton P., Milton. 

1899 Whitney, Henry M., Cohasset. 

1917 Whittemore, Charles, Cam- 
bridge. 



1915 Wigglesworth, Frank, Milton. 

1899 Wigglesworth, George, Milton. 

1863 Wilbur, George B., Boston. 

1889 Wilde, Mrs. Albion D., West 
Roxbury. 

1881 Wilder, Edward Baker, Dor- 
chester. 

1899 Williams, Miss Adelia Coffin, 
Roxbury. 

1905 Williams, George Percy, Bos- 
ton. 

1899 Williams, John Davis, Bos- 

ton. 

1905 Williams, Mrs. J. Bertram, 
Cambridge. 

1905 Williams, Mrs. Moses, Brook- 
line. 

1911 Williams, Ralph B., Dover. 

1915 Wilson, E. H., Jamaica Plain. 

1914 Wilson, Fred A., Nahant. 

1881 Wilson, William Power, Bos- 
ton. 

1917 Winslow, Arthur, Boston. 

1905 Winsor, Robert, Weston. 

1906 Winter, Herman L., Portland, 

Me. 
1914 Winthrop, Grenville L., Lenox. 
1914 Winthrop, Mrs. Robert, New 

York, N. Y. 
1914 Winthrop, Mrs. Robert C, Jr., 

Boston. 
1870 Wood, William K., Franklin. 
1905 Woodberry, Miss E. Gertrude, 

North Cambridge. 

1905 Woodbury, John, Canton. 

1906 Woodward, Mrs. Samuel Bay- 

ard, Worcester. 
1917 Wright, George S., Watertown. 

1900 Wyman, Windsor H., North 

Abington. 



210 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



1913 Adams, Charles F., Jamaica 

Plain. 
1896 Anderson, George M., Milton. 

1912 Bahcock, Miss Mabel Keyes, 

Wellesley Hills. 
1911 Bacon, Augustus, Roxbury. 

1915 Baker, Mrs. G. B., Chestnut 

Hill. 
1898 Barr, John, South Natick. 

1916 Barron, Leonard, Garden City, 

N. Y. 

1917 Beal, Thomas P., Jr., Boston. 
1893 Bigelow, Mrs. Nancy J., South- 
borough. 

1917 Blodgett, Mrs. John, Beach 
Bluff. 

1917 Bogholt, Christian M., New- 
port, R. I. 

1901 Bradley, Miss Abby A.,' Hing- 

ham. 

1913 Bradley, Miss Julia H., Rox- 

bury. 
1873 Breck, Charles H., Newton. 

1902 Breed, Edward W., Clinton. 

1908 Briggs, Frank P., Ayer. 

1909 Brigham, Mrs. Clifford, Milton. 

1914 Brown, F. Howard, Marlboro. 

1916 Brown, Mrs. G. Winthrop, 

Chestnut Hill. 

1914 Campbell, Ernest W., Wollas- 
ton. 

1910 Camus, Emil, Boston. 

1917 Carlquist, Sigurd W., Lenox. 
1904 Chandler, Alfred D., Brookline. 
1917 Chase, H. F., Andover. 

1917 Child, H. Walter, Boston. 
1910 Churchill, Charles E., Rockland. 
1916 Clark, Schuyler S., Brookline. 
1914 Colt, James D., Chestnut Hill. 



1907 Colt, Mrs. James D., Chestnut 
Hill. 

1917 Conant, Mrs. William C, Bos- 
ton. 

1917 Coolidge, Mrs. W. H., Boston. 

1915 Copson, William A., Roslindale. 
1914 Crocker, Mrs. George Glover, 

Boston. 

1914 Crocker, Joseph Ballard, Chat- 
ham. 

1914 Crompton, Miss Mary A., 
Worcester. 

1881 Crosby, J. Allen, Jamaica Plain. 

1917 Curtis, Allen, Boston. 

1875 Curtis, Joseph H., Boston. 

1914 Cushing, Mrs. Harvey, Brook- 
line. 

1912 Cutler, Mrs. N. P., Newton. 

1906 Cutting, Mrs. Isabelle Ladd, 
Roxbury. 

1910 Dahl, Frederick William, Rox- 

bury. 

1917 Dalton, Philip S., Milton. 

1889 Davis, Frederick S., West Rox- 
bury, 

1911 Dolansky, Frank J., Lynn. 
1897 Dorr, George B., Boston. 

1916 Estabrooks, Dr. John W., Wol- 

laston. 
1903 Evans, Frank H., Maiden. 

1902 Farlow, Mrs. William G., Cam- 
bridge. 

1917 Farr, Mrs. Betty K., Stone- 

ham. 

1917 Fiske, David L., Grafton. 

1901 Fiske, Harry E., Wollaston. 

1894 Fitzgerald, Desmond, Brook- 
line. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 



211 



1917 Flood, Mrs. Mary, Woburn. 
1903 Freeman, Miss Harriet E., 

Boston. 
1905 Fuld, Maurice, New York, N.Y. 

1912 Gage, L. Merton, Groton. 
1912 Goodwin, Mrs. Daniel, East 

Greenwich, R. I. 
1917 Gordon, George, Beverly. 
1917 Graton, Louis, Randolph. 
1900 Grey, Robert Melrose, Belmont, 

Cuba. 
1897 Grey, Thomas J., Chelsea. 

1908 Hamilton, Mrs. George Lang- 
ford, Magnolia. 

1912 Hardy, John H., Jr., Little- 
ton. 

1894 Hatfield, T. D., Wellesley. 

1917 Hathaway, Walter D., New 
Bedford. 

1910 Hayward, Mrs. W. E., Ipswich. 

1891 Heustis, Warren H., Belmont. 

1916 Hibbard, Miss Ann, West Rox- 

bury. 

1914 Higginson, Mrs. Alexander H., 
Manchester. 

1902 Hildreth, Miss Ella F., West- 
ford. 

1902 Hill, Arthur Dehon, Boston. 

1884 Hill, J. Willard, Belmont. 

1912 Hollingsworth, Mrs. Sumner, 

Boston. 

1913 Holmes, Eber, Montrose. 
1913 Houghton, Mrs. Clement S., 

Chestnut Hill. 

1917 Howard, W. D., Milford. 
1900 Howden, Thomas, Hudson. 
1917 Howe, Henry S., Brookline. 

1902 Hubbard,Allen,Newton Centre. 
1893 Hubbard, F. Tracy, Brookline. 

1913 Jenkins, Edwin, Lenox. 

1916 Jenks, Albert R., Springfield. 

1903 Johnston, Robert, Lexington. 

1898 Kelsey, Harlan P., Salem. 



1898 Kennard, Frederic H., Newton 

Centre. 
1912 Kirkegaard, John, Bedford. 

1889 Lancaster, Mrs. E. M., Rox- 

bury. 

1900 Lawson, Joshua, Marshfield. 
1914 Leach, C. Arthur, South Hamil- 
ton. 

1914 Leary, Dr. Timothy, Jamaica 

Plain. 
1917 Leonard, John E., Wellesley. 
1904 Leuthy, A.; Roslindale. 

1902 Lewis, E. L., Taunton. 

1896 Lincoln, Miss Agnes W., Med- 
ford. 

1901 Loring, Mrs. Thacher, Boston. 
1896 Loring, William C, Beverly. 

1903 Lumsden, David, Ithaca, N. Y. 

1912 McCarthy, Nicholas F., South 

Boston. 

1904 MacMulkin, Edward, Boston. 

1890 Manning, A. Chandler, Wil- 

mington. 

1917 Meader, H. E., Dover, N. H. 

1917 Mixter, Dr. Samuel J., Bos- 
ton. 

1914 Morse, Frank E., Auburndale. 

1913 Murray, Peter, Manomet. 

1916 Nehrling, Prof. Arno H., Craw- 
fordsville, Ind. 

1895 Nicholson, William, Framing- 
ham. 

1904 Nicol, James, Quincy. 

1903 Nixon, J. Arthur, Taunton. 

1913 O'Brien, Mrs. Edward F., 

Brookline. 

1915 Parker, A. S., Stoneham. 

1914 Parker, Miss Charlotte E., 

Ipswich. 
1906 Parker, Eliab, Roxbury. 
1892 Parker, Walter S., Reading. 
1909 Parker, W. Prentiss, Roxbury. 



212 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1908 Peabody, Mrs. W. Rodman, 

Readville. 
1914 Pembroke, A. A., Beverly. 
1898 Pierce, Mrs. F. A., Brookline. 

1902 Pritchard, John, Bedford Hills, 

N. Y. 

1912 Proctor, Dr. Francis I., Welles- 

ley. 
1883 Purdie, George A., 'Wellesley 
Hills. 

1913 Putnam, Frank P., North 

Tewksbury. 

1906 Rane, Prof. F. W., Waban. 
1897 Rea, Frederic J., Norwood. 
1912 Reed, H, B., Auburndale. 

1914 Rees, Ralph W., Ithaca, N. Y. 
1893 Rich, Miss Ruth G.,Dorchester. 
1888 Rich, William E. C, Ocean 

Park, Maine 

1900 Robb, Peter B., Whitinsville. 

1893 Robinson, Walter A., Arling- 
ton. 

1917 Rooney, John P., New Bedford. 

1915 Rosenthal, Wolf, Boston. 

1892 Ross, Henry Wilson, Newton- 
ville. 

1903 Ross, Walter D., Worcester. 

1909 Russell, Charles F., Weston. 

1910 Rust, William C, Brookline. 

1907 Sanborn, Edward W., Boston. 
1897 Sander, Charles J., Brookline. 
1875 Saunders, Miss Mary T., Salem. 
1896 Searles, E. F., Methuen. 

1910 Sears, Prof. F. C, Amherst. 

1907 Seaver, Robert, Jamaica Plain. 

1886 Sharpies, Stephen P., Cam- 
bridge. 

1907 Sim, William, Cliftondale. 

1915 Slamin, John, Wellesley. 

1910 Smith, D. Roy, Boston. 

1914 Smith, George N., Wellesley 
Hills. 

1914 Spaulding, Mrs. Samuel S., 
Springfield Center, N. Y. 



1914 Sprague, George H., Ipswich. 

1917 Stephen, A. L., Waban. 

1914 Stevenson, Robert H., Read- 
ville. 

1914 Storey, Mrs. Richard C, Bos- 
ton. 

1914 Sturgis, Miss Lucy Codman, 
Boston. 

1904 Symmes, Samuel S., Winches- 
ter. 

1869 Tailby, Joseph, Wellesley. 

1914 Thayer, JohnE., Jr., Lancaster. 
1909 Tracy, B. Hammond, Wenham. 

1913 Tuckerman, Bayard, Ipswich. 
1907 Turner, Everett P., Arlington. 

1911 Ufford, Charles A., Dorchester. 

1881 Vaughan, J. C, Chicago, 111. 

1915 Wadsworth, Ralph E., North- 

boro. 
1902 Ware, Horace E., Milton. 
1917 Warren, Miss Cornelia, Wal- 

tham. 

1914 Washburn, Paul, Boston. 
1914 Waterer, Anthony, 3d, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

1914 Waterer, Hosea, Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
1889 Welch, Patrick, Dorchester. 

1915 Wetterlow, Eric H., Manches- 

ter. 

1909 Wheeler, George F., Concord. 

1897 Wheeler, Henry A., Newton- 
ville. 

1917 White, Mrs. Joseph H., Brook- 
line. 

1901 Wilder, Miss Grace S., Dor- 
chester. 

1897 Wilkie, Edward A., Newton- 
ville. 

1913 Williams, Mrs. Emile F., Cam- 
bridge. 

1889 Winter, William C, Mansfield.